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Monday, October 11, 2010

Popular Fruit Clones in Malaysia

Malaysia is a tropical country with fertile soil for agriculture activity especially oil palm, rubber and other food crops. Among food crop include paddy, vegetables, cash crop and of course Fruit Tree. The fruit industry in Malaysia was commercially established for domestic use and export market. From my study on statistic I recorded that there was about 269,860 hectare of fruit tree vegetation in Malaysia in 2010 and producing 1.642 million metric ton of fresh fruit. This article I would like to share my views on status of Malaysian Tropical Fruit industry and popular fruit varieties based on my experience as senior agriculture extension agent for almost 30 years in service.

Durian (Durio zibethinus) was the largest fruit tree grown in Malaysia in 2009 with total area about 100,615 hectare followed by Banana (Musa spp) with total area of 28,640 hectare and annual production of 283,220 mt . The study shown that Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) was third in acreage about 24,470 hectare with an annual production of 79,540 metric ton in 2009. The fourth popular fruit grown in Malaysia was Pineapple (Ananas comosus) totaling for 16,210 hectare with total production of 400,070 metric ton. Other tropical fruit tree will be discussed individually as they are also important in Malaysian Fruit Industry. This article also discussed about few popular clones in Malaysia and some challenges in this sector.

Malaysia export few selected tropical fruit to neighboring countries, West Asia, Europe, Japan and Hong Kong as fresh fruit and to many other countries for processed fruit. The fresh fruit for export was Star Fruit, Papaya, Pineapple, Watermelon, Mangoesteen, Durian and some others. The new potential Malaysian Fruit for export were Rock Melon. The processed fruit mostly was canned pineapple and canned mixed fruit in syrup. About 30 fruit types will be discussed in this article from my study with lot of references.

1. STAR FRUIT (Belimbing)
a. Star Fruit / Carambola (Click here)
b. Klon Belimbing di Malaysia (Click here)

Star Fruit or Belimbing (Averrhoa carambola) is a popular fruit among local smallholders with 3 clones that is Clone B10, Clone B17 and Clone B2. The B10 with green color and medium size and low sugar content and the most popular clone for domestic and export market. The European consumed these varieties as SALAD and export maturity was index 3-4 (100% ripe at index 6). The local popular clone was B17 which was very sweet in taste and bigger size compare to B10 and strong aroma. The B2 clone was grown as pollen supplier to B10 and B17 for better yielding capacity with cross pollination. Total area for star fruit growing area was 1,340 hectare with annual production of 11,370 metric ton in 2009. Main production area was in Selangor (Gombak District -132 ha) followed by Seremban District in Negeri Sembilan (98 ha) and Temerloh District in Pahang (68 ha). Most of the star fruit growing area produce Clone B10 and Clone B17 for domestic and export market. A number of private sector company deal with export of star fruit such as K-Farm and MAFC.
(My Blog on Star fruit technology published on 4 April 2010).

2. PAPAYA (Betik)
a. Betik / Papaya (Click here)
b. Betik sekaki (Click here)
c. Papaya Dieback Disesae (Click here) 
Papaya or Betik (Carica papaya) was planted for domestic and export market. The most popular local clone was Betik Eksotika 1 and Betik Eksotika 2. The other popular clone was Betik Sekaki or also called as Betik Hongkong contributes for about 65-70% of total papaya planted in Malaysia. Total growing area of papaya in Malaysia in 2009 was 2,985 hectare with total production about 47,630 metric ton. Betik Sekaki was the best high yielding variety with planting period for 3-4 years. Papaya was grown mostly in Daerah Rompin Pahang (688 ha), Daerah Padang Terap Kedah (296 ha) and Daerah Muar Johor (182 ha) in 2009. The two other less popular was Subang Variety, Solo Variety, Hawai Variety and few others. Few issues of growing papaya in Malaysia was certain diseases such as PSRV and Papaya Dieback. The growers and DOA manage to control the diseases with various methods.
(My blog on papaya technology published on 18 April 2010).

3. Cempedak
a. Chempedak (Click here)
b. Chempedak clones in Malaysia (Click here)
c. Penduduk vs Hasil Pertanian (Click here)

Cempedak (Artocarpus chempeden) has three popular and recommended variety for commercial production that was Clone CH30, Klon CH 28 and Clone CH33. There was about 11,050 hectare of Cempedak in Malaysia with annual production of 53,010 mt in 2009. There was a local variety that less popular known as Temerloh Variety, Paya Jaras Variety, Sg Ara variety as traditional or local variety. Chempedak was grow in Daerah Kuching Sarawak (366 ha) followed by Daerah Selama Perak (250 ha) and Daerah Sipitang Sabah (245 ha). Cempedak consumed as fresh fruit and also popular fried as “Chempedak Goreng” with a strong aroma and also fried with ‘Vacuum Frying Technology”.
(My Blog on Chempedak Technology was published on 22 January 2010).

4. Ciku
a. Ciku Mega C19 (Click here)

b. Mengetut pokok Ciku (Click here)
c. Klon Ciku di Malaysia (Click here)

Ciku (Manikara sapota) was a fruit look-like Kiwi Fruit and from my study has 5 popular clone that was Ciku Mega (CM19), Ciku Betawi (C61), Ciku Jantung (C62), Ciku Subang (C63) and Ciku Kaseroi (No Code ). Ciku in Malaysia was grown as mixed crop with other fruit tree such as durian, jackfruit and many others. I refer to DOA statistic book that the total area of ciku in 2009 was 1,030 hectare with annual production of 5,790 metric ton. Ciku was very slow growing rate annually and took more than 5-7 years to start bearing fruit if planted with seedling planting material. There was a claim that the use marcotted planting material are able to enhance growing period.
(My blog article on ciku technology was published in Jun 2010).

5. Durian
a. Durian clones in Malaysia (Click here)
b. Durian (Click here)
c. Popular Durian Clones (Click here)
d. Durian D 24 (Click here)
e. Kursus pengeluaran benih (Click here)

Durian (Durio zibethinus) in Malaysia is considered as “King of the Fruit” due to its special characteristic with strong aroma and various range of price and varieties. Total area of durian planted in Malaysia in 2009 was 100,615 hectare with total production of 288,900 mt . Durian are planted mostly in Johore especially in Daerah Muar Johor (7,048 ha), Daerah Segamat Johor (6,741 ha) and Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (5,365 ha). There was more than 200 clones of durian found in Malaysia but only about 8-12 clone was popular for growing and has a good demand among Durian Eaters. Some popular clone was D24 (Bukit Merah), D99 (Koop Kecil), D158 (Tangkai Panjang), D159 (Bantal Mas), D168/101 (Mas Muar) and D197 (Kunyit). Most durian was for domestic market but export to Singapore, Australia, China and few other countries are increasing. The fresh durian was processed using “Quick Freezing Technique” before packed and export to other country. Durian also used as raw material for processed food product such as lempuk, dodol, juice, jam, durian chip, puree and many others. There was a trend from few years ago the durian farmers start falling durian and replaced it to Oil Palm.
(My blog on durian technology was published in 3 articles)

6. Coconut (Kelapa)
a. Coconut (Klik disini)
b. Ketupat (Klik disini) 
Coconut or Kelapa in Malays (Cocos nucifera) was grown in Malaysia as traditional and commercial crops for many decades. There was many varieties of coconut found in Malaysia and the most popular was Malaysian Tall, MATAG, Malaysian Dwarf Red (MRD), Malaysian Green Dwarf (MGD),Malaysian Yellow Dwarf (MYD ), Pandan Wangi, MAWA , African Tall, Rennel, MARREN , MAMA. The latest and newest clone was MATAG, MAWA and Pandan Wangi with a great demand for local consumer. Total area of coconut in Malaysia was 109,185 hectare mostly on the coastal area. The largest coconut plantation was in Sarawak (22,290 ha) followed by Johor (21,250 ha) and Sabah (19,140 ha). Production capacity annually about 571,400 mt . Coconut was identified as multi-purpose commodity for its coconut milks, candy, copra, agro based industry and others.
(Blog on coconut growing technology published on 28 April 2010)

7. Jambu Air
a. Jambu Air Johor (Klik disini)
b. Jambu Air Merah(Klik disini)

Jambu Air (Euginia aquea) has 2 popular clones that was Clone E3 (Red Variety or Jambu Air Madu Merah – Photo ) and Clone E2 (Green Variety). Total Jambu Air area was estimated about 50-70 hectare based on CHE and planted as mixed crop or monocrop. The Green Variety also known as Jambu Air Johor that was planted in Daerah Muar and Daerah Kluang in Johore.
(Blog on Jambu Air Technology was published on 5 February 2010)

8. Guava (Jambu Batu)

a. Giant Guava (Klik disini)
b. Guava Clones (Klik disini)
c. Jambu Batu (Klik di sini)
d. Jambu Bol (Klik disini)
e. Jambu Mawar (Klik disini)

Guava or Jambu Batu (Psidium guava) was grown wisely in Malaysia for fresh and export market and also for processing. There was Seedless and With Seed Variety. The seedless variety was not strong recommended for commercial growing due to its unstable characteristic such as Clone GU15. Guava with seed was more popular such as Clone GU8, Clone GU9 and Clone GU 10. Total area of guava in Malaysia was 1,440 hectare with an annual production of 18,880 mt in 2009. Area with most guava was in Daerah Muar Johor (213 ha) , Daerah Batang Padang Perak (185 ha) and Daerah Segamat Johor (68 ha). The most critical problem in guava agronomic practices is to control the attack of nematode.
(My blog on guava technology was published on February 2010.)

9. Longan
a. Longan Technology in Thailand (Klik disini)
b. Longan in Malaysia (Klik disini)

Longan (Dimocarpus longan) in Malaysia has 4 popular varieties that was Edaw, Chompoo, Biew Khiew dan Klon Diamond/Belian but most farmers prefers only two variety lately that was Clone Edaw and Clone Belian. Longan was new commodity in Malaysia less than 7 years ago as popular fruit. There was no data about total acreage of longan industry in Malaysia but I estimated about 50-70 hectare in 2010. Malaysia a was one of the largest importer of fresh longan from Thailand about 7,650 metric ton annually with valued at more than RM 12.4 milloin in 2008. Longan are grown throughout nation especially at Johor, Melaka, Selangor, Kedah, Perak and Negeri Sembilan.
(My Blog longan technology was published on 20 April 2010)

10. POMELO (Limau Bali)
1. Pomelo (Klik disini)

POMELO or Limau bali (Citrus grandis) was grown in Malaysia for fresh and export market. Pomelo was known as fresh fruit and used as ceremonial and religious fruit by Chinese community during Festive Season. Total area for pomelo production in Malaysia was 8,830 hectare in 2009. Johore again was the largest pomelo producers with Segamat District, Johor (313 ha - Jementah) followed by Daerah Kuala Kangsar Perak (200 ha) and Daerah Kinta Perak (110 ha). There was 2 popular pomelo clones in Malaysia that was Clone PO 52 (Red Flesh -Tambun) and Clone PO 53 (White flesh - Melomas).
(My Blog on pomelo technology published on February 2010)

11. CITRUS (Limau Manis)
a. Limau Purut (Klik disini)
b. Limau Bali (Klik disini)
c. Limau Kasturi (Klik disini)
d. Likau Gedang (Klik disini)
e. Limau Mandarin (Klik disini)
f. Limau Lemon (Klik disini)
g. Limau Nipis (Klik disini)
h. Citrus Greening Disease (Klik disini)
i. Registered Citrus Clone (Klik disini)
j. Dusun Kg. Dingin (Klik disini)

For Sweet Citrus or locally known as Limau manis atau Limau Langkat (Citrus suhuensis) was popular many years ago as important commodity but due to serious disease attack (Citrus Greening Disease) the industry was collapsed. The popular variety was known as Limau Madu or Clone M32. From my observation and study there was about 3,940 hectare with annual production of 70 metric ton in 2009 almost half from 10 years before. Asa Jaya District in Sarawak was the major production area with 294 hectare followed by Daerah Simunjan Sarawak (288 ha) and Daerah Beaufort Sabah (230 ha).

12. Mangoesteen (Manggis)
1. Manggis (Klik disini)

Mangoesteen or locally known as Manggis (Garcinia mangostana) was planted as ornamental and mixed crop surrounding the kampong and seldom grown as monocrop. There were no specific clones or cultivar studied in Malaysia but local people has Local Manggis and Mesta. Mesta was popular in Pahang Barat and Pahang Tengah. Mesta believed was faster to produce fruit compare to mangoesteen that took more than 7-10 yaers to produce fruits. From my study shows that mangoesteen has a potential market for Japan and Europe with proper handling and post harvest syatem. There as about 7,685 hectare of mangoesteen grown in Malaysia in 2009 with annual production of 29,520 metric ton. Daerah Batang Padang Perak was the most mangoesteen area (340 ha) followed by Daerah Hulu Langat Selangor (300 ha) and Daerah Segamat Johor (288ha).
(My Blog on Mangoesteen technology was published on 9 June 2010)

13. Mango (Mangga)
1. Mangga Chok Anan (Klik disini)
2. Kesan cuaca dan Mangga (Klik disini)
5. Potential of Malaysian Fruit (Klik disini)

Mango or Mangga (Magnifera indica) has many popular clones grown in Malaysia and the most popular among all was Clone MA224 (Chok Anan). This clone was popular in Perak, Melaka, Selangor, Sarawak and few other states. There was about 9,375 hectare of mango area in 2009 with total production of 24,510 metric ton. Main production area of mango in Malaysia was located at Daerah Jasin Melaka (463 ha) followed by Daerah Alor Gajah Melaka (419 ha) and Daerah Kuching Sarawak (271 ha). Other popular mango clones in Malaysia was Clone MA 128 (Harum Manis), MA 162 (Foo Fatt / Golek), MA 165 (MAHA), MA 204 (Melele) and MA 223 (Nam Dok Mai). The least popular clones in 1980’es was Clone Apple Mango and planted as ornamental tree in housing area and produce a high yield especially on the coastal area. The local popular small mango was Mangga Pauh and Mangga Telur.

14. PINEAPPLE (Nenas)

1. Nenas (Klik disini)
2. Nenas MD2 (Klik disini)
4. Nenas Organik (Klik disini)

Pineapple or Nenas (Ananas cosmosus) considered among popular fruit crop in Malaysia for fresh, export and processing activity. Malaysia was once known in the world as canned pineapple producers many years ago. Pineapple was grown by smallholders and Estate plantation in Johore and few other states. The most popular pineapple varieties were Nenas Morris and Nenas Gandul (N36). Other new variety was Nenas Cayene, Nenas Spanish, Nenas Queen and Nenas MD2. There was about 16,850 hectare of pineapple area grown in Maloaysia in 2009 producing about 416,070 metric ton. Johor was the main pineapple producers in Malaysia especially on peat soil at Daerah Pontian (3,686 ha), Daerah Kluang (2,950 ha) and Daerah Muar (1,266 ha) and the processing plant located at Pontian.

15. JACKFRUIT (Nangka)
1. Jackfruit (Klik disini)
2. Nangka (Klik disini)

JACKFRUIT or Nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus) has various popular clones in Malaysia such as Clone J29, Clone J31, Clone Tekam Yellow, Clone Mastura and Clone J33 (Nangka Madu), Clone Mantin, Clone Uncle Hong dan Clone Nangka Kristal (PPK). Total area of jackfruit plnting area in Malaysia was 3,640 hectare with an annual production of 28,970 mt in 2010. Jackfruit was largely grown in Daerah Temerloh ,Pahang (207 ha), Kota Tinggi Johor (192 ha) and Daerah Segamat Johor (136 ha).
(My Blog on Jackfruit Technology published on 22 January 2010)

16. BANANA (Pisang)
1. Artikel Pisang (Klik disini)
3. Balut Tandan Pisang (Klik disini)

BANANA or Pisang (Musa spp) are popular fruit grown among local farmers as commercial crop and intercrop for new rehabilitation area of oil palm and rubber area. Total banana production area in 2009 was 29,790 hectare with annual production of 295,630 metric ton. The popular variety of banana in Malaysia was Pisang Mas, Pisang Rastali, Pisang Cavendish and Pisang Berangan. The most area planting banana was Daerah Batu Pahat Johor (1,660 ha), Daerah Pontian Johor (1,653 ha) and Daerah Muar Johor (1,532 ha).
(My blog on banana technology published on 2 March 2010)

17. Pitaya (Buah Naga)
Artikel Pitaya (Klik disini)

Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) also known as Buah Naga in Malaysia was a new fruit commodity introduced less than 10 years ago for commercial production. There were 2 varieties grown in Malaysia that was Red Clone (Isi Merah) and White Clone (Isi Putih). Total pitaya planting area in Malaysia was 2,510 hectare with annual production of 9,790 metric ton in 2010. Pitaya was commercially grown in Daerah Kluang Johor (206 ha), Daerah Mersing Johor (156 ha) and Daerah Jelebu N Sembilan (155 ha). Pitaya industry in Malaysia was seriously hit by Dieback Disease 3 years ago and caused many farmers flung in their capital investment. The control measures by biological and chemical measures improved the situation.

18. Pulasan

Pulasan (Nephelium mutabile) grown in Malaysia for about 1,410 hectare with an annual production of 4,930 metric ton in 2010. Among popular clones for pulasan was Clone Ah Hock (Hock 94). Other less popular clone was Clone P28 (Pulasan Temerloh). Pulasan was planted especially at Daerah Hulu Langat Selangor ( 314 ha), Daerah Dungun Terengganu (242 ha) and Daerah Muar Johor (146 ha). Pulasan was critical during fruit setting with irrigation system availability. The best is to provide irrigation system for pulasan orchard.

19. Rambutan
Artikel Rambutan ( Klik disini)

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) among popular fruit crop inn Malaysia as monocrop or mixed crop by smallholders. Total area of rambutan area in Malaysia was 25,460 hectare with annual production of 82,740 metric ton. Rambutan was a seasonal fruit and receive a low price during peak production season as low as less than RM 0.30 per kilogram. Rambutan largely grown in Daerah Selama Perak (846 ha), Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (654 ha) and Daerah Dungun Terengganu (473 ha). There are so many rambutan clones in Malaysia from sour to sweet variety. From my study shown that the popular clones was Clone R134 (Rambutan Singapore), Clone R 156 (Gading Muar), Clone R 179 (Deli Cheng), Clone R 191 (Anak Sekolah ) and Clone R 193 (Deli Baling). Most rambutan used as fresh fruit and only few percentages processed or canned.
(My Blog on Rambutan Tecnology was published on 31 January 2010)

20. Salak
Artikel Salak (Klik disini)

For Salak (Salacca glabrecens) there was about 1,190 hectare recorded in 2009 with annual production of 4,550 metrik ton. Salak was a popular commodity in Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (329 ha), Daerah Dungun Terengganu (256 ha) and Daerah Tumpat Kelantan (233 ha). Salak popular clones was Clone SJ15, Clone SJ 17, Clone SJ 34, Clone SJ 36, Clone SJ 39, Clone SJ 40 and the latest clone was Salak Pondoh (From Indonesia). Malaysia import fresh salak fruit from Indonesia that was Salak Medan. This fruit was for fresh consumption and processed as Salak Pickle.
(My Blog on Salak technology was published on 19 April 2010).

21. WATERMELON (Tembikai)
Artikel Tembikai (Klik disini)

WATERMELON or Tembikai (Citrullus lunatus) was gron in Malaysia as popular commodity with about 11,750 hectare in 2010. Annual production in this year estimated about 239,050 metric ton and for domestic also export commodity. The main watermelon production area was in Daerah Rompin Pahang (2,543 ha), Daerah Kluang Johor (1,119 ha) and Daerah Mersing Johor (828 ha). Among popular watermelon variety grown in Malaysia was New Dragon, Emperor, Flower Dragon, Hitam Manis (S108), Black Gold (With Seed variety).Seedless variety such as Fengshan No 1, Ming Hwa, Gold Rush 1663, Felicity Orchid Sweet, Sin Foon, Quality, seedless No 1 and Seedless Superstar. Main target for watermelon production is for export to Hong Kong, China, Middle East and Singapore.
(My Blog on Watermelon Technology published on 27 April 2010)

22. SOURSOP (Durian Belanda)

(Artikel : Durian Belanda Klik disini)

SOURSOP or Durian Belanda (Annona muricata) was using local clones and yet to study the new registered Soursop Clones. I refer to many sources to check total soursop acreage grown in Malaysia but fail. My experience said that estimate acreage about 120-200 hectare. Soursop was planted in mixed orchard area or as commercial such as in Pontian, Johor. There was 2 identified variety of Soursop that was SOUR Variety and SWEET Variety. Soursop used as fresh fruit and process for fruit juice. It claimed that soursop able to reduce Gout problem.

23. Dokong

Dokong (Lansium domesticum Jack) was grown about 16,130 hectar CHE in Malaysia with an annual production of 32,420 metric ton. Main production area was identified at Daerah Gua Musang Kelantan (2,040 ha) followed by Daerah Kuala Krai Kelantan (1,950 ha) and Daerah Jeli Kelantan (1,748 ha). There was no registered dokong clones in Malaysia but farmers claim 2 clones available that was Dry Clone (Dokong Kering) and Seed Clone (Dokong Biiji) or Wet Clone (Klon Dokong Basah). Previously dokong ex-farm price ranged between RM 4.00 - RM 8.00 perkilogram but this year only gain for RM 0.40 – RM 0.60 per kilogram. Dokong has a biennial characteristic problem which the ability not to bear fruit every year but alternate year or 3-4 years as peak season.

Popular fruit clones in Malaysia depend on market demand, variety characteristic, Seasonal Fruit or Non-Seasonal Fruit and level of management. The seasonal fruit has ability to gain low price due to its volume and mass production for short period of time. The old approach in fruit tree development program such as AID Program by DOA was a success story when traditional popular tropical fruit such as Durian, Rambutan, Jackfruit, Mango and Manggoesteen was producing fruit annually. The latest approach with Rehabilitation Fruit Tree and Replanting Program will be able to increase productivity with new clones and agronomic practices.

I had read in newspaper that the new approach under NKEA fruit program Malaysia able to grow 5 selected fruit such as Pineapple, Rock Melon, Star Fruit, Papaya and Watermelon run by anchor company able to capture 45% ASEAN and world Export market. Other vegetable under NKEA such as Capsicum, Tomato and Chili also listed for commercial export market. I believed and think the new approach will be a success planning in the future.


M Anem
Happybirthday 11102010

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