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Monday, September 28, 2009

Farm Visit

A basket of dokong from DOA Project at Kg Muda Jaya, Pagoh, Muar.

Farm Visit and farmers home visit is the most practical extension approach in providing new technologies to the farmers. It was one of the oldest and popular extension system applied throught the world especially for agriculture country. This concept is to have a farm visit to one farmers or a group of farmers. For certain countru which has group farming project, it was the best method for agriculture extension agent to had Farm Visit Activity. For Group Farming area normally the group leader will be the contact person in extension supported with thier committee members. Meeting with group farming members is the best method provided all group members available to attend the agriculture extension meeting. It was very practical approach for Paddy Group Farming in Malaysia copare to other comodity group farming. Farm visit provide new information or Agriculture Practices direct to the farmers.

Extension Agent visit Goat Farm and deliver on Goat Diseases.

The purpose of having farm visit is as follow:

a. To enhance better link between farmers and extension agent.
b. To introduce new ideas/new technology to farmers
c. To assist farmers needs (Agriculture aspect)
d. To explain and develop farmers skill to new technologies/modified technologies
e. To study and analyze problems and study farmers need before planning a new project
f. To monitor the development progress on agriculture practices
g. To plan what type of Demo Plot suitable
h. To had proactive discussion with active farmers
i. To train local leader among the farmers.

Farm visit to commercial brassica farmers in Sengkang, Muar.

Steps for farm visit activity started with Planning before farm Visit, Implemantation of Farm visit and finaly monitoring the farm visit. Planning farm visit is important for us to know WHO is the farmers we want to visit in waich area, what comodity, when and basic preparation. We has to determine who we want to meet, what is the purpose of farm visit, check previous record on farm visit , what is the tool required for farm visit, What type of information suitable and finally what type of approaches applied. During farm visit the extension agent must be POLITE, start talking with interesting topic and powerfull, Ask more participation from the farmers, Encourage farmers to talk more active and use whatever tools suitable to convice the farmers. Write on notebook whatever issues disscussed and provide the alternatives of solutions.

A group of Extension Agent and SMS from technical branch visit Coconut MATAG Farm.

After Farm Visit we had to monitor and produce activity report. Extension agent has to revise and check their farm visit program regularly so the there is not much implemantetion problem. If there is a highly technical issue the local extension agent cannot solve, he mus refer to Senior Technical Officer at District level or higher authority such as Subject Matter Specialist (SMS). Prepare a next farm visit program with new ideas or other issues. The final importance is to had a evaluation every six months about the farm visit program and prepare a activity report.

Agriculture Extension
Agent, Muar

Sunday, September 27, 2009

Communication in Agriculture Extension

Communication is a basic necessity in agriculture extension activity. What is Communication?..... many people said that communication is very easy and simple that is TALKING ONLY but actually it is more than that. Communication is an art to transfer information from one sources to other target through various means. Information can be sent through various way such as Voices, Sign, Colour, Appearance, Movement, Temperatures, Wave length and other forms. Talking is a communication from one person to another persons is commonly understood about communication through Verbal Communication. Communication can be original ability but mostly can be trained professionally through Communication Skill Training Program. Proper training can improve communication skill with ability to influence people. Good speaker such as Adolf Hitler, Soekarno, Muamar Gadafi, Ahmedinejad is a charismatic born speaker and many people can accept his speech during that era.

For extension agent they need to be excellent in communication skill. He must be able to Speak, Read and Write fluently in their own language or local dialect or medium. they has to meet farmers according to the farm visit schedule and must be able to talk about agriculture technology and wise knowledge in farming activity. Extension agent should be able to translate any issues raises by farmers and provide them with alternatives of solutions. Discussion among farmers and entrepreneurs carried out in positive manner so that the community will benefit equally. Each farmers allowed to throw-out their ideas and give them chance to talk positively. Extension agent than extract all ideas and guide them to a communal accepted solution.. that is an excellent communication skill in extension.

M Anem
Senior Agronomist and 
Communication Speaker.
Extension agent visit Tagal Fishing
project at Ranau Sabah.
(Updated on 15 January 2015)

Thursday, September 24, 2009


Direct selling fresh from the farm. Keep any record?

Do you know what is Farm Record Keeping?
Farm record keeping is an activity to record all farming activities so that the farmers can analyse their profit margin. Farm Record Keeping is one important component in Farm Management Practices. Ability of farm managers and Commercial Farmers to record either by manual or computerised method analysed towards year end or periodically. Farms Inputs Record is to write all input used in the farm such as Fertilizer Usage, Chemical, Weedicide, Seed, Planting Materials, Organic Manure, Plastic Silvershine, Basket, Nylon and many others.

The data recorded in a farm Input Record Form indicated by Date of Purchase, Amount used, Input Balance and Price of Inputs. Farm Labour Record keeping is to record all cost of manpower to do all farm activities from land preparation to harvesting up to grading and selling the product. It's unit was mandays ( 1 mandays equivalent to 8 working hours to do one activities) and the cost per mandays depending on the area i.e normally about RM 20.00 per mandays in Malaysia. There is Farm Family Labour and Hired Labour in Farming Activities to be recorded. Yield Production Record Keeping is one important record to write all yield from the farm and indicated by Date Of Harvest, Amount Harvested (kg), Price per unit (RM/Kg) by grade and marketing outlet. Its is important to record by each commodities separately.

Me Deliver farm Management Lecture at Kg Ba' Kelalan, Interior Sarawak

Each crop cycle must has one record keeping system especially for short-term crop such as vegetables. For perennial crop the recording activities less due to nature of activities. Farmers can tabulate all farm records after one cycle or one season and start doing Farm Financial Analysis. Cost of Production calculated by dividing amount of production (Total Farm Yield) by Total Amount of Cost of Production and if the value is RM 0.60 means the cost of production for one kg is 60 cents (Farmers has to sell the produce more than 60 cents to make a profit). Farmers analyze their Gross Profit Margin by deducting Total Farm Income (Yield x Price) and Total Cost of Production (Costs of Inputs/Cost of Labour/ Other miscellaneous Cost). If the value is NEGATIVE means farmers are Losing and if the Value POSITIVE means farmer is gaining or make profit.

Farmers can calculate Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) by dividing Total Gross Income by Total Costs of Production to indicate every one unit (RM1.00) the farmers invested how much is the return, if the value is RM2.15 means that every RM1.00 farmers spent it will give a return of RM1.15 extra as a profit. Other method to do farm analysis is to count Payback Period whereby how long the activities to be carried out so that the activities results profitable ventures in the units of Months or Years. Net Present Values (NPV) is other method to analyse farming activities. It uses special formula in a Farm Cashflow for each commodities. Microsoft Excel Programme has a VPV Formula in the cashflow system and very useful.

For further information of Farm Management Subject please refer to my Lecture.

M Anem
Senior Extension Specialist

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Malaysian Giant Prawn

The Malaysian Giant prawn as exotic for local dish .

Malaysian Giant Prawn (Udang Galah - Sepit Biru) or botanical name as Microbrachium rosenbergii found in major Malaysian River as one of the exotic prawn. It sized as maximum to 3 feet in arm length and up to 1.2 kg in weight. Normally local fisherman used manual fishing technique to catch this Malaysian Giant Prawn using traditional "Alat Memancing Udang". I experienced to catch udang galah at Sg Endau River in Mersing, Johor few times. The prawn has maximum size to 1 feet length of the blue arm (Sepit Udang Biru). From my experience catching Udang Galah at Sg Endau was very challenging due to its strength using small boat.

We use small sampan with 5 hp engine boat and has to locate several points to ensure better catch. Normally we use 4 - 6 fishing unit with "Local Cacing"as a bait. The udang Galah is very tricky when we pull out from the water because it must be slowly pulled-up. Upon reached water surface is the most critical part as the prawn hardy trying to escape... so it's all the best experienced in fishing Udang Galah.

The writer with Pak Halim at Sungai Endau, Mersing, Johor to catch Giant Prawn.

The price of Udang Galah ranged from RM 35/kg to RM 50/kg depending on the season and size of the prawn. It is the best to eat if we fry upon catching with better sweet taste. Normally after 20-30 small udang galah in one area its only an get one pieces of Giant Udang Galah. Other place to catch Local Malaysian Giant Prawn (Udang Galah) such as Sg Rompin, Sg Muar, Sg Rembau, Sg Perak, Sg Kuantan and few others. Those who interested to catch Malaysian Udang Galah must read the information about udang galah before try to start fishing!


M Anem

Kaki Pancing.
Endau, Mersing,
Johor, Malaysia.

Friday, September 18, 2009


Visiting Agent with District Officer giving technology advice to farmers in fertigation project.

Department of Agriculture State of Johore is the one and the only Department of Agricukture in Malaysia certified with Malaysian Standard (International Standard Organization) in Extension Service ("Khidmat Pengembangan Perladangan Komersial") to-date. The certification was started in 1998 with MS ISO version 1996 and now with version 2001 whereby next year with version 2008. It involves 4 Main Procedure and 12 Supportive Procedure with one Modified Manual Quality. I experienced in MSO KPPK from the begining until now for more tha 14 years. Auditing and validation process for our MS ISO by SIRIM QAS (a company under SIRIM International).

Main ISO content is the extension system following standard procedure that 5 steps for implementation include Preparing Business Plan, Preparing Annual Extension Programme, Extension Implementation system and Extension Monitoring System. Among sub-activities in the extension to be implemented was Farmers Training, Farm Visit, Demonstration Plot, Farmers Visit, Farm subsidy and input assistence.

The system audited by Internal Auditor every periodical time and than audited by External Auditor every year normally by QAS Auditor (SIRIM). The main Quality Procedure were changed accordingly (minor improvement procedure) that appproved under MKSP Meeting. We the officer in the department proud of what we have done for the past 10 tears doing MS ISO in extension service.

The certification ceremony launcged by Stae Caunsellor and SIRIM at Puter Pan Pacific Hotel. All 8 districts and Headquarters implement KPPK for extension services. Gap Analysis for farmers income is one factors suditors like to examine. The 2 monthly meeting and MKSP Meeting organised monthly meetings.


Mohd Anin


Wednesday, September 16, 2009

Crop Demonstration Plot


Crop Demonstration Plot is an area selected by the DOA (Dept of Agriculture) within the farmers farm which fall under certain criteria. This plot will be used as a training ground for other farmers to see the relevant technology introduced such as Planting System, New Crop Variety, Fertilizer and method of application, New Chemical and the Usage, IPM, farm management and others. Agriculture Extension officers will supervised the selected farmers to follow Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) procedure so that the plot is presentable to others. The farmers are willing to follow and able to communicate very well with some basic knowledge or experienced in farming activity.

Agriculture Extension Services by Department of Agriculture recognise Farm Demonstration plot as a way to transfer agriculture technology to the clientelle especially in food crop production so that the produce must be best quality and safe to eat. Most popular comodities determined under this concept are Leafy vegetables (Spinach, Brassica, Kailan, Kangkng), Cash Crops (Yam, Tapioca, Maize) , Paddy and selected tropical fruits (papaya, pineapple, avio etc). DOA also provide some assistance to the farmers in the forms of Technical Training, Basic Crops Inputs and advisory services.

It is good if the sorrounding farmers come freely to see and having hands-on training on the Crop Demonstration Plot. In Muar District about 12 Crop Demo Plot implemented this 2009 which involved various project such as Paddy (Sg Balang, Sawah Ring, Teluk Rimba, Kesang Gate), vegetable (Kg Sagil, Kg Sengkang, Kg Paya Mas, Kg Seri Jaya), Mas Cotek (Pt Jamil), Papaya (Kg Muda Jaya Pagoh) , Nilam (kg Jorak) and Pineapple (Kg Semerah baru, Kg Air Hitam).

AO Muar

Thursday, September 10, 2009


SMO's and farmers gathered at Pisang Tanduk Farm in Pontian, Johore.
This project impact project mainly to develop GAP system in problem soil.

What is SMO?

SMO is a short form for Subject Matter Officer.

Subject matter Officer is a group of senior and experience officer in their own category to be referred as a source of agriculture technology and teach extension agent.

Agriculture Extension Services in Department of Agriculture Malaysia is an activity to transfer technology from sources to extension agent and later to farmers as main clientele. Farmers ranged from commercial farmers, medium category, small farmers, subsistence farmers and agencies. In delivery system Subject Matter Officer (SMO) in the Technical Branch will teach extension agent every two week in special selected agricultural technology. All SMO has to undergo special training how to gather information and teaching skill. Most of them are graduate and gain focus training to a certain skill.

An annual training program for SMO and Extension Agent conducted at Agriculture Training Center or District Office. SMO has to teach and show hands-on training following Training Cluster (Crop, Agrobase Industry, Farm mechanization, Soil Management, Crop Protection, Enforcement Act etc). The training program organised by District Agriculture Office under SPTP Training Program 6 monthly. Training module by SMO follows Formal Lecture and Hands-On Training.

SMS (Subject Matter Specialist) are much better categories in Extension Service Concept. The SMS's is a specialist in certain field in deep and so all expert. For example in mushroom technology, SMS of mushroom are competent to talk about abalone mushroom and all matters about mushroom such as the economic analysis, diseases, pests, Good Agriculture Practices, Operation costs and others. He must attain professional training and experience in mushroom project or activity for many years.


Mohd Anim

DOA Johor

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Industri Asas Tani Muar

Projek Industri Asas Tani (IAT) Jabatan Pertanian Johor bagi Daerah Muar terdiri daripada pelbagai kluster Produk iaitu Produk Makanan Ringan, Produk Hasilan Kelapa, Produk Jus, Produk Hasilan Soya, Produk Kerepek, Produk Kuih Tradisional, Produk Pes, Produk Hasilan Laut, Produk Kek dan Bakeri, Produk Makanan Sejukbeku dan sebagainya. Usahawan yang aktif sentiasa diberikan khidmat pengembangan melalui pegawai-pegawai IAT/PKT Daerah dan Kursus-kursus Teknikal secara berjadual. Selain daripada bantuan peralatan dan mesin usahawan juga di bantu dari segi peningkatan kualiti produk dan promosi produk serta pencaarian luang pasaran. Aspek-aspek Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) dan HACCP serta persijilan HALAL MALAYSIA menjadi sasaran setiap usahawan. Mereka diberikan pengetahuan tentang Analisa Untung Rugi Projek serta membuat anaalisa sensitivity pprojek.

Terdapat seramai 128 usahawan di Daerah Muar/Ledang yang telah berdaftar dengan Pejabat Pertanian Muar sehingga Tahun 2008 dengan jumlah nilai pengeluaran sebanyak RM 7.85 juta setahun. Mereka dipantau aktiviti pengeluaran oleh Pegawai2 IAT Jabatan Pertanian dengan menggunakan Borang SKU 1 hingga SKU 7 yang mencatitkan segala produktiiviti setiap usahawan yang di bimbing. Antara peserta yang berjaya mencapai pengeluaran melebihi RM100,00 sebulan adalah seperti Aini Ayub (Panchor - makanan sejuk Beku), JT Sinaran Bukit Gambir - Pes Makanan), UNS Enterprise (Sg Sudah- Mas Cotek), Nasuha Enterprise (Herba), Tudin Enterprise (Kundang Ulu -Sos Cili Cendawan) dan En Alip Samsuddin (Produk Hasilan Laut). Produk mereka merupakan produk yang berkualiti, Pembungkusan yang menarik serta melepasi ' sensery Test' Jabatan Pertanian Malaysia.

Mereka juga berdaftar dengan Portal Agribazaar ( untuk memudahkan peluang pemasaran melaui internet. Pembeli, pengedar dan peminat boleh berhubung dengan Pejabat Pertanian Muar/Ledang untuk keterangan lanjut senarai pengusaha IAT di alamat :

Pejabat Pertanian Muar
314, Jalan Kamariah,
84000, Muar, Johor.
(Tel: 09-9522845)

Membuat kuih cakar ayam dan Produk mee siput simbol IAT Muar

Berminat nak melawat?
Contact DOA Muar 07-9522845

Saturday, September 5, 2009


Goat Barn at Muar with more than 450 heads.

Integrated Farming is a mix of Crop, Animal husbandry , Aquaculture and Processing of agricultural waste. It will optimise farm resources to a better profitable activities. Farmers need all suitable agriculture knowledge and appropriate technology for integrated farming. The best combination of activities depend on the ability of the farmers to manage the project and location suitability. For crop or animal husbandry combination there was no special location required as per aquaculture project. Aquaculture needs special area with excellent water supply in and out so that the fish cultured able to grow accordingly.

The most common integrated farming in Malaysia today's was rearing cattle or goat under palm oil plantation. The project was implemented by private sector, estate sector, small farmers and other entrepreneurs. The cattle rearing by Guthrie Plantation, SEDC , FELDA Schemes, FELCRA and other plantation seems to be very promising. Total Farm Management system has to be practiced so that the available grass formulated enough for cattle to graze with about 4-6 heads per hectare for matured palm oil plantation. Electric Fencing was used as the control boundary in cattle rearing under palm oil area.

Fish pond with fresh water fish project also integrated with food crop to maximised farm production. Fresh water fish such as Tilapia, Pacu, Carp, Catfish, Rohu, Patin, Ornamental Fish among the best fish in Malaysia. Food crop such as Tapioca, Yam, Lemon Grass, Herbs, Banana, Leafy Vegetables popular to grow around ponds. The Carp Fish suitable for growing grass as their feed. Pellet normally used as commercial feed for fresh water fish in Malaysia.

The ideal integrated farming was a combination of Cattle or Goat with fresh water fish in few ponds surrounded with food crop project. There was a complete feeding cycle between all three categories. The crop harvested and produce leaves and by product utilised for animal feed or fish (Carp).

The introduction of Beneficial Micro-organism (EM) with the usage of commercial inputs will ensure a suitable environment for optimum farm production.

Visit of DOA Official to Banana Farm at Muar.

In Johore about more than 100 integrated farming has been identified with a combination of crop cultivation , goat rearing and aquaculture is common. Mr Ahmad from Kg Pinang Seribu, Muar is one of the farmer deal with goat rearing ( 850 head) with catfish (8 canvas unit) and grown orchard (Banana, Durian, Duku and Guava) earn about RM 2,300/net/month. Department of Agriculture provide extension services to him following Extension SPTP system.

Mohd Anim
DOA, Muar

Graha Patriotika

Graha Patriotika at Tanjung Kling , Melaka was known as A Leadership Training Center in 1986 - 1996. This center trained more than 10,000 official for 5 days each batch and last long for 10 years. I am one of the facilitator and trainer together with 30 others personnel. Our special guest speaker was Dato' Mohd Zam Abdul Wahab (State Secretary). Those who still remember the training would has a sweet memory . . . EVERYBODY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE CHANGE FOR A BETTER LIFE.

Foto above: The group after each session training in front
of Graha Patriotika Tg Kling, Malacca in 1991

Our facilitator after training session (Seen there areMohd Anim, Razak, Samingan, Pakir, Sharabudin and Yati).





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