Support My Blog

Sunday, February 27, 2011


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the country. For the biogeographical region, see Malesia.

Motto: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"
"Unity Is Strength"

Anthem: Negaraku (My Country)

Malaysia in ASEAN

Kuala Lumpur[a]
Putrajaya (administrative centre)
3°08′N 101°42′E3.133°N 101.7°E

Largest city
Kuala Lumpur

Official language(s)
Bahasa Malaysia

Official for some purposes English

Official script
Malay alphabet

Ethnic groups
50.4% Malay
23.7% Chinese
11.0% Indigenous
7.1% Indian
7.8% Other


Federal constitutional elective monarchy and Federal parliamentary democracy

Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Abdul Halim

Prime Minister
Najib Tun Razak

Deputy Prime Minister
Muhyiddin Yassin

From the United Kingdom (Malaya only) 31 August 1957
Federation (with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore - 16 September 1963

Total 329,847 km2 - 127,354 sq miles
Water (%)

2010 census


83.57/km2 (114th)
216.45/sq mi

2010 estimate
Total $403.042 billion - Per capita

GDP (nominal) - 2010 estimate
- Total $213.065 billion
- Per capita - $7,546.559

HDI (2010)
0.744[8] (high) (57th)

Ringgit (RM) (MYR)

Time zone

Summer (DST)
Not observed (UTC+8)

Internet TLD

Calling code

a. Kuala Lumpur is the capital city and is home to the legislative branch of the Federal government. Putrajaya is the primary seat of the federal government where the executive and judicial branches are located.
b. The current terminology as per government policy is Bahasa Malaysia (literally Malaysian language)[9] but legislation continues to refer to the official language as Bahasa Melayu (literally Malay language).
c. English may continue to be used for some official purposes under the National Language Act 1967.
d. Singapore became an independent country on 9 August 1965.

Malaysia ( i /məˈleɪʒə/ mə-LAY-zhə or i /məˈleɪsiə/ mə-LAY-see-ə) is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories and has a total landmass of 329,847 square kilometres (127,350 sq mi). It is separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo (also known as West and East Malaysia respectively).Land borders are shared with Thailand, Indonesia, and Brunei, and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Peninsular Malaysia is connected to Singapore via a causeway and a bridge. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. The population as of 2010 stood at over 28.25 million.

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay Kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, with the other states forming protectorates. The states on Peninsular Malaysia, then known as Malaya, was first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore to form Malaysia on 16 September 1963. However, less than two years later in 1965, Singapore withdrew from the federation, and became an independent city state. Since independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5% for the first 50 years. The economy of the country has, traditionally, been fuelled by its natural resources, but is now also expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism.

The head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on English Common Law. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, factors that influence its culture and play a large role in politics.

Malaysia contains the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, and is located near the equator and has a tropical climate. It has a biodiverse range of flora and fauna, and is considered one of the 17 megadiverse countries. It is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, and a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Main article: History of Malaysia
Evidence of human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years. The first inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula were most probably Negritos. The Malay Peninsula was known to ancient Indians as Suvarnadvipa or the "Golden Peninsula", and was shown on Ptolemy's map as the "Golden Khersonese". Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the 1st century of the common era, establishing trading ports and towns in the area in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. Both had a strong influence on the local culture. In the early centuries of the first millennium, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the Indian religions of Hinduism and Buddhism.

The Sanskrit writing system was used as early as the 4th century. Between the 7th and the 13th century, much of the Malay Peninsula was under the Srivijaya empire, which was centered in Palembang on the island of Sumatra. After the fall of Srivijaya, the Java-based Majapahit empire had influence over most of Peninsular Malaysia and the Malay Archipelago. In the early 15th century, Parameswara, a prince of the former Srivijayan empire, established a dynasty and founded what would become the Malacca Sultanate, commonly considered the first independent state in the peninsula. Parameswara became a Muslim, and due to the fact that Malacca was under a Muslim Prince, the conversion of Malays to Islam accelerated in the 15th century. Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.

The first colonial claim occurred in 1511, when Malacca was conquered by Portugal, who established a colony there. This colony was later captured by the Dutch, before being turned over to the British in 1795. The British Empire set foot on the Malay Peninsula in 1786, with the lease of the island of Penang to the British East India Company by the sultan of Kedah, which was followed by the occupation of Singapore. In 1824, the British took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 which divided the Malay Archipelago between Britain and the Netherlands, with Malaya in the British zone.

By 1826 the British controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore and the island of Labuan, which they established as the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. By the turn of the 20th century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States, had British Residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers, whom the rulers were bound by treaty to defer to. The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not directly under rule from London, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th century. Development on the Peninsula and Borneo were generally separate until the 19th century. Sabah was governed as the crown colony of British North Borneo. In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a British colony.

During World War II, the Japanese army invaded and subsequently occupied Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore for over three years. During this time, ethnic tensions were raised and nationalism grew. After Malaya was reconquered by Allied Forces, popular support for independence grew. Post-war British plans to unite the administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the Malayan Union met with strong opposition from the Malays, who opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the granting of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese. The Malayan Union, established in 1946 and consisting of all the British possessions in the Malay peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was dissolved in 1948 and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection.

During this time, rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency, as it was known, lasted from 1948 to 1960, and involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. In 1963, Malaya along with the then British crown colonies of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, federated to form Malaysia. The proposed date of federation was 31 August 1963, however, the date was delayed until 16 September 1963 due to opposition from Sukarno who was supportive of the Manila Accord and the Sarawak United Peoples' Party.

In its initial period, independence brought heightened tensions including a conflict with Indonesia (Konfrontasi) over the formation of Malaysia, Singapore's eventual exit in 1965 and racial strife in the form of the 13 May race riots in 1969. After the riots, the controversial New Economic Policy was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the share of the economy held by the bumiputra. The country has since maintained a delicate ethno-political balance, with a system of government that has attempted to combine overall economic development with political and economic policies that promote equitable participation of all races.

Under the premiership of Mahathir bin Mohamad, there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanization beginning in the 1980s. The period saw a shift from an agriculture-based economy to one based on manufacturing and industry in areas such as computers and consumer electronics. It was during this period too, that the physical landscape of the country changed with the emergence of numerous mega-projects. Notable amongst these were the construction of the Petronas Towers (at the time, the tallest building in the world, and still the world's tallest twin building), Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), the North-South Expressway, the Sepang International Circuit, the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), the Bakun hydroelectric dam, and Putrajaya, the new federal administrative capital. In the late 1990s, Malaysia was shaken by the Asian financial crisis as well as political unrest caused by the sacking of the deputy prime minister Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim.In November 2007, the country was rocked by two anti-government rallies. They were precipitated by allegations of corruption and discrepancies in the election system that heavily favoured the ruling political party, Barisan Nasional, which had been in power since Malaysia achieved its independence in 1957.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas.
The word Melayu derives from the Sanskrit term Malaiur or Malayadvipa which can be translated as "land of mountains", the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. The term was later used as the name of the Melayu Kingdom, which existed between the 7th and the 13th centuries on Sumatra. In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as Melayunesia or Indunesia. He favoured the former[46] for the colonial reference. Following his 1826 expedition in Oceania, the French Navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville invented the terms Malaysia, Micronesia and Melanesia, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the already existing term Polynesia. In 1831, he proposed these terms to The Société de Géographie. Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East Indies".

At that time, it was thought that the inhabitants of this region could be designated by the encompassing term "Malay" in line with that era's concept of a Malay race, which contrasts with contemporary definitions in which "Malay" refers to an ethnic group of similar culture who speak the Malay language and live on the east coast of Sumatra, the Riau Islands, the Malay Peninsula and the coastline of the island of Borneo. The related term "Malay world" is used to refer to this extended geographical area

In 1957, the Federation of Malaya was declared as an independent federation of the Malay states on the Malay peninsula. The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. Prior to that, the name itself had been used to refer to the whole Malay Archipelago. Politicians in the Philippines once contemplated naming their state "Malaysia", but in 1963 Malaysia adopted the name first. At the time of the 1963 federation, other names were considered: among them was Langkasuka, after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium of the common era.

Main article: Geography of Malaysia

Malaysia is the 43rd most populated country and the 66th largest country by total land area in the world, with a population of about 28 million and a land area of around 329,847 square kilometres (127,350 sq mi). It lies mostly between latitudes 1° and 8°N (a small area is south of 1°), and between longitudes 99° and 120°E. Land borders include Thailand in the west, and Indonesia and Brunei in the east. It is linked to Singapore by a narrow causeway, and also has maritime boundaries with Vietnam and the Philippines. The land borders are now well established and defined in large part by geological features such as the Perlis River, Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention. Malaysia is the only country with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago, and Tanjung Piai, located in the southern state of Johor, is the southernmost tip of continental Asia. The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is arguably the most important shipping lane in the world.

The two distinct parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both West (Peninsula) and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains.
Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40% of Malaysia's land area, extends 740 kilometres (460 mi) from north to south, and its maximum width is 322 kilometres (200 mi). It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains, part of a series of mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula. These mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape.The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia's river systems. The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi), and the peninsula's coastline is nearly 1,931 kilometres (1,200 mi) long, although harbours are only available on the western side.

East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of 2,607 kilometres (1,620 mi). It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous interior. The Crocker Range extends northwards from Sarawak, dividing the state of Sabah. It is the location of Mount Kinabalu. Mount Kinabalu, at 4,095.2 metres (13,436 ft), is the tallest mountain in Malaysia and is protected as Kinabalu National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The highest mountain ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the world.

Malaysia contains numerous islands, the largest of which is Labuan.The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. The temperature is moderated by the presence of the surrounding oceans. Humidity is usually high, and the average rainfall is 250 centimetres (98 in).
Kuala Lumpur is the official capital and the largest city in Malaysia.Putrajaya is the federal administrative capital. Although many executive and judicial branches of the federal government have moved there (to ease growing congestion within Kuala Lumpur), Kuala Lumpur is still recognised as the country's legislative capital since it houses the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia. It is also the main commercial and financial centre of the country.

Main article: Wildlife of Malaysia
Malaysia is a megadiverse country with a high number of species and high levels of endemism. Its wildlife are some of the most diverse on earth,[55] and it being a Megadiverse country, and the country includes some of the most biodiverse areas on the planet. It is estimated to contain 20% of the world's animal species. There are about 210 mammal species in the country. Peninsular Malaysia holds two big cats, the Indochinese Tiger and the clouded leopard, and large prey such as the Sumatran Rhinoceros, Malayan Tapir,[55] Sambar Deer,[69] Gaurs, and Asian Elephants can also be found.

East Malaysia lacks the tigers of the peninsular, leaving clouded leopards, sunbears, and Sunda Otter Civets as the primary predators. Rhinoceroses and Elephants are also found there, along with a variety of primates such as Bornean Orangutans and Proboscis Monkeys. High levels of endemism are found on the diverse forests of Borneo's mountains, as species are isolated from each other by lowland forest. Over 620 species of birds have been recorded just on the Peninsular.Many are endemic to the mountains of the peninsular, and Bornean forests show high levels of endemism among bird species with 38 species found nowhere else. 250 reptile species have been recorded, with about 150 species of snakes and 80 species of lizards. There are about 150 species of frogs, and thousands of insect species.

Malaysia's Exclusive economic zone is 1.5 times larger than its land area, and some of its waters are in the Coral Triangle, a biodiversity hotspot. The waters around Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world.[69] Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 fish species. Five species of sea turtles inhabit the area,[74] along with 20 species of Sea snake.[69] The Dugong is found around Sabah and in the Strait of Johor. 
About two thirds of Malaysia is covered in forest which is believed to be 130 million years old. It is composed of a variety of types, although they are mainly dipterocarp forests. Lowland forest occurs below 760 metres (2,493 ft),[59] and formerly East Malaysia was covered in such rainforest, which is supported by its hot wet climate. There are around 14,500 species of flowering plants and trees. Besides rainforests, there are over 1,425 square kilometres (550 sq mi) of mangroves in Malaysia, and a large amount of peat forest. Coastal land of the peninsular is fringed by Mangroves. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarps.

There are an estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East. The forests of East Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare. These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world, with a maximum diameter of 1 metre (3 ft). They also contain large numbers of carnivorous plants, such as pitcher plants, bladderworts, sundews, and ant-house plants.

Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover, causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Over 80% of Sarawak has been cleared. Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60% of the Peninsular's forest have been cleared. With current rates of deforestation, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020. Deforestation is a major problem for fauna, as the forest are cut to make room for plantations, mostly for Palm oil and other cash crops. Most remaining forest is found inside national parks. Tigers received official protection in 1976, when they numbered a mere 300.

The Orangutan population has dropped 40% in the last 20 years. Animals such as the Asian Elephant have been forced out of their habitat due to its loss, often forcing them to starve.Sumatran Rhinoceroses are likely to go extinct in Malaysia, and hornbills are steadily declining in numbers. Habitat destruction has proved a threat for marine life. Illegal fishing is another major threat, with fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting marine ecosystems. Leatherback Turtle numbers have dropped 98% since the 1950s. Hunting has also been an issue for some animals, with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine life to Tigers. Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.

The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation; and the federal government is trying to cut logging by 10% per year. 28 national parks have been created, 23 on East Malaysia and 7 on the Peninsular. Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan Island. Animal trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government is holding talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardize anti-trafficking laws.

Main article: Politics of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy. The federal head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commonly referred to as the "King". The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states; the other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection.[82] The position has to date been, by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; the order was originally based on seniority. The system of government is closely modelled on that of the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British colonial rule. The King's role has been mostly ceremonial since the 1994 version of the constitution.Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures.

The bicameral parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (literally the "Chamber of the People") and the upper house, the Senate or Dewan Negara (literally the "Chamber of the Nation").The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies, which are defined based on population. All 70 Senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, with the remaining 44 appointed by the king upon the Prime Minister's recommendation. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the governing body is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Since independence in 1957, Malaysia has been governed by a multi-party coalition known as the Barisan Nasional (formerly known as the Alliance Party).

Besides the Parliament at the federal level, each state has a unicameral State Legislative Assembly (Malay: Dewan Undangan Negeri) whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. State governments are led by Chief Ministers (Menteri Besar in Malay states, or Ketua Menteri in states without hereditary rulers), who are state assembly members from the majority party in the State Legislative Assembly. In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is required to be a Malay, appointed by the Sultan upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, with the last general election being in March 2008. Registered voters of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory. Federal elections are held concurrently with the elections of every state except Sarawak.

Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister; the Constitution stipulates that the prime minister must be a member of the lower house of parliament who, in the opinion of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commands a majority in parliament. The cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body. The Prime Minister is both the head of cabinet and the head of government.

Race is a significant force in Malaysian politics, and many of the political parties are ethnically based. Actions such as the New Economic Policy (NEP) and the National Development Policy (NDP) which superseded it, were implemented to advance the standing of Bumiputera.[90] These policies provide preferential treatment to Malays over non-Malays in employment, education, scholarships, business, and access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. While it improved the economic position of Bumiputras, it is a source of resentment amongst others.

Main article: Judiciary of Malaysia
The judiciary is theoretically independent of the executive and the legislature, although supporters of the government hold many judicial positions. The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal, and two High Courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia, and one for East Malaysia. The subordinate courts in each of these jurisdictions include Sessions Courts, Magistrates' Courts, and Courts for Children. Malaysia also has a Special Court to hear cases brought by or against all Royalty. Malaysia's legal system is based on English Common Law.

Separate from the civil courts are the Syariah Courts, which decide on cases which involve Malaysian Muslims. These courts run parallel to the normal court system, and are undergoing reforms that include the first ever appointment of female judges. Debate exists in Malaysia over whether the country should be secular or islamic. Some state governments controlled by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, including that of Terengganu, have passed Islamic laws, but these have not gone into effect due to opposition from the federal government.

Foreign relations and military
Main articles: Foreign relations of Malaysia and Malaysian Armed Forces

Malaysia's foreign policy is based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system, and to further develop relations with other countries in the region.[99] It attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and has tried to strengthen relations with other Islamic states.[100] A strong tenant of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs.

Malaysia is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. The country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005. The policy towards territorial disputes by the government is one of pragmatism, solving disputes in a number of ways, including some resolved in the International Court of Justice.[108] The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, although tensions have eased since the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea. Brunei and Malaysia in 2008 announced an end to land claims, and to resolve issues related to their maritime borders. The Philippines has a dormant claim to Sabah. Singapore's land reclamation has caused tensions between the two countries, and maritime border disputes exist with Indonesia.

Malaysia has never recognised the state of Israel and has no diplomatic ties with the state. It has remained a strong supporter of the State of Palestine, and has called for Israel to be taken to the International Criminal Court over the Gaza flotilla raid. Malaysian peacekeeping forces are present in Lebanon and has contributed to many other UN peacekeeping missions.

Malaysian defence requirements are assigned to the Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia – ATM). The armed forces has three branches, the Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia – TLDM), the Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia – TD), and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia – TUDM). There is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18. 1.9% of the country's GDP is spent on the military, which hires 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower. Dr Kogila Balakrishnan is the head of the Defence Industry.

The Five Power Defence Arrangements between Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, is a regional security initiative which has been in place for almost 40 years. It involves joint military exercises held between the five countries. Joint exercises and war games have been held with Indonesia for years. Malaysia and the Philippines have agreed to host joint exercises between their security forces, in order to secure their maritime border and tackle issues such as illegal immigration. There are fears that unrest in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines and southern Thailand could spill over into Malaysia.

Main articles: States and federal territories of Malaysia and Districts of Malaysia
Malaysia is divided into 13 states (Negeri) and 3 federal territories (Wilayah Persekutuan). These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and 2 federal territories on Peninsular Malaysia and the other 2 states and 1 federal territory in East Malaysia. As Malaysia is a federation, the governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state governments, while the Federal government has direct administration of the federal territories.

The 13 states are based on historical Malay Kingdoms, and 9 of the 13 states, known as the Malay states, retain their royal families. The head of state (titled Yang di-Pertuan Agong) is elected by and from amongst the nine rulers to serve a five-year term. Each state has a unicameral legislature known as the State Legislative Assembly. The states of East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) have separate immigration policies and controls and a unique residency status. Visas are required for travel between these two states or between either state and peninsular Malaysia. For some, the other areas of Malaysia are considered foreign countries under immigration laws. Each state is further divided into districts, which are then divided into mukim. In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into "Divisions".

The federal parliament is permitted to legislate on issues of land, the Islamic religion and local government, in order to provide for a uniform law between different states, or on the request of the state assembly concerned. The law in question must also be passed by the state assembly as well, except in the case of certain land law-related subjects. Non-Islamic issues that fall under the purview of the state may also be legislated at the federal level for the purpose of conforming with Malaysian treaty obligations.

Main article: Economy of Malaysia
Petronas Towers
Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised market economy. The state plays a significant but declining role in guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans. In 2007, the economy of Malaysia was the 3rd largest economy in Southeast Asia and 29th largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity with gross domestic product for 2008 of $222 billion, with a growth rate of 5% to 7% since 2007. In 2009, GDP per capita (PPP) of Malaysia stands at US$14,900. In 2009, the nominal GDP was US$383.6 billion, and the nominal per capital GDP was US$8,100. In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural-based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy.

Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysia's growth.High levels of investment played a significant role in this.The Malaysian economy recovered from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis sooner than neighbouring countries, and has since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis era with a GDP per capita of $14,800.[132][133] Inequalities exist between different ethnic groups, with a major issue being that the Chinese minority accounts for 70% of the country's market capitalization, even though it only makes up about one-third of it.

Oil palm plantations make Malaysia one of the largest producers of palm oil in the world. International trade, facilitated by the adjacent Strait of Malacca shipping route and manufacturing are both key sectors of the country's economy. Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, the most valuable exported resource being petroleum. At one time, it was the largest producer of tin,rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy, although Malaysia’s economic structure has been moving away from it. In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysia’s economy less dependent on exported goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism in Malaysia.

As a result, tourism has become Malaysia’s third largest source of income from foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism. The country has developed itself into a centre of Islamic banking, and is the country with the highest numbers of female workers in Islamic banking. Knowledge-based services are also expanding.

Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Malaysia
Science policies in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. Other ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health, also have science departments. The country is one of the world's largest exporters of semiconductor devices, electrical goods, and information and communication technology products. In 2002, the Malaysian National Space Agency (Angkasa) was formed to deal with all of Malaysia's activities in space, and to promote space education and space experiments. In early 2006, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and three other finalists were selected for the Angkasawan spaceflight programme. This programme came about when Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multi-billion dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force.

In an effort to create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development, Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s. This has created a defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to try and promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry. One way it does this is through the Langkawi International Maritime and Air Show, one of the largest defence and civil showcases in Asia Pacific, regularly attended by over 500 companies. The Malaysian Armed Forces relies heavily on local military technology and high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured by foreign countries.

Main article: Demographics of Malaysia
Malaysia population density (person per Km2)

The population of Malaysia is made up of many ethnic groups. Malays make up 50.4% of the population, with other bumiputra making up another 11%. According to constitutional definition, Malays are Muslims who practice Malay customs (adat) and culture. They play a dominant role politically. Bumiputra status is also accorded to certain non-Malay indigenous peoples, including ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and Sarawak. Non-Malay bumiputra make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over two thirds of Sabah's population.There also exist aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsula, where they are collectively known as Orang Asli. Laws over who gets Bumiputra status vary between states.

Various other minorities who lack Bumiputra status have established themselves in Malaysia. 23.7% of the population are of Chinese descent, while those of Indian descent comprise 7.1% of the population.The Chinese have historically been dominant in the business and commerce community, and form the majority of the population of Penang. Indians began migrating to Malaysia in the early 19th century. The majority of the Indian community are Tamils. Many Europeans and Middle Easterners assimilated through inter-marriage into the Christian and Muslim communities respectively. Most Eurasian Malaysians trace their ancestry to British, Dutch or Portuguese colonists.

Citizenship is usually granted by lex soli. Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are distinct from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times.
The population distribution between the two halves of the country is highly uneven. The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia where 20 million of approximately 28 million Malaysians live. 70% of the population is urban. Due to the rise in labour intensive industries, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers, which is about 10% of the population. Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million population, 2 million are illegal immigrants.

Additionally, according to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 155,700. Of this population, approximately 70,500 refugees and asylum seekers are from the Philippines, 69,700 from Burma, and 21,800 from Indonesia. The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants named Malaysia as one of the Ten Worst Places for Refugees on account of the country's discriminatory practices toward refugees. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a volunteer militia, to enforce its immigration law.

Main article: Religion in Malaysia
Kampung Laut Mosque in Tumpat is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia, dating to early 18th century.

The Malaysian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and makes Islam the official religion. According to the Population and Housing Census 2000 figures, approximately 60.4% of the population practiced Islam of which only the Sunni branch is allowed; 19.2% Buddhism; 9.1% Christianity; 6.3% Hinduism; and 2.6% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. The remainder was accounted for by other faiths, including animism, folk religion, and Sikhism while 0.8% either reported having no religion or did not provide any information.

All ethnic Malays are considered Muslim by Article 160 of the Constitution.[161] Statistics from the 2000 Census indicate that 75.9% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (10.6%) and Christianity (9.6%), along with small Hui-Muslim populations in areas like Penang.[160] The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (84.5%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (7.7%), Muslims (3.8%), over 150,000 Sikhs, and 1,000 Jains. Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay Bumiputra community (50.1%) with an additional 36.3% identifying as Muslims and 7.3% follow folk religion.

Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah courts in matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi`i legal school of Islam, which is the main madh'hab of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of Shariah courts is limited only to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Shariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts (including the Federal Court) do not hear matters related to Islamic practices.

Main article: Languages of Malaysia
The official language of Malaysia is known as Bahasa Malaysia, a standardised form of the Malay language. English was, for a protracted period, the de facto administrative language, although Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots. English remains an active second language in many areas of Malaysian society and is compulsory, serving as the medium of instruction for maths and sciences in all public schools. Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE), is a form of English derived from British English, although there is little official use of the term, except with relation to education.

Malaysian English also sees wide use in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese dialect and Tamil influences. Most Malaysians are conversant in English, although some are only fluent in the Manglish form. The government officially discourages the use of Manglish. Many other languages exist in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages. Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. The Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Chinese Malaysians mostly speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China, with the more common dialects being Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians. Malaysian Tamil is a significant dialect which is different from Tamil spoken in India, with many loan words from Malay entering into its vocabulary. Other south Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, as well as Thai A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese based Malaccan Creoles, and the Spanish based Chavacano language.

Main article: Education in Malaysia
A Malaysian secondary school class photo, showing students with their teacher.

Education in Malaysia is monitored by the federal government Ministry of Education. The education system features a non-compulsive kindergarten education, followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of non-compulsive secondary education. Schools in the primary education system is divided into two categories, the national primary school and the vernacular school. Vernacular schools (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan) use either Chinese or Tamil as the medium of instruction, whereas national primary schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan) use Bahasa Malaysia as the medium of instruction for all subjects except English, Science and Mathematics. Before progressing to the secondary level of education, pupils in Year Six are required to sit for the Primary School Achievement Test (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah, UPSR).

Secondary education is conducted in secondary schools (Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan) for five years. National secondary schools use Bahasa Malaysia as the main language of instruction. The only exceptions are Mathematics and Science and languages other than Bahasa Malaysia. At the end of Form Three, which is the third year, students are evaluated in the Lower Secondary Assessment (Penilaian Menengah Rendah, PMR). However, PMR is to be abolished by 2016, after which Secondary students directly sit for SPM in Form Five. In the final year of secondary education (Form Five), students sit for the Malaysian Certificate of Education (Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia, SPM) examination, which is equivalent to the former British Ordinary or 'O' Levels.

The government has decided to abandon the use of English in teaching maths and science and revert to Bahasa Malaysia, starting in 2012. Before the introduction of the matriculation system, students aiming to enter public universities had to complete an additional 18 months of secondary schooling in Form Six and sit the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia, STPM); equivalent to the British Advanced or 'A' levels. Since the introduction of the matriculation programme as an alternative to STPM in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges (kolej matrikulasi) can enroll in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10% of places are open to non-Bumiputra students.

Main article: Healthcare in Malaysia
The Malaysian government places importance on the expansion and development of public health care, with 5% of the government social sector development budget spent in this area. Over the last couple of years, the Malaysian Health Ministry has increased its efforts to overhaul the system and attract more foreign investment. The Government has also been trying to promote the country as a health care destination, regionally and internationally. The government implements a universal health care system, which co-exists with the private healthcare system. Infant mortality rate – a standard in determining the overall efficiency of healthcare – in 2005 was 10, comparing favourably with the United States and western Europe. Life expectancy at birth in 2008 was 74 years. The country's health care system requires doctors to perform a compulsory three years service with public hospitals to ensure that manpower in these hospitals are maintained.
A major problem with the health care sector is the lack of medical centres for rural areas, which the government is trying to counter through the development and expansion of a system called "tele-primary care". Another issue is the over-perscription of drugs, although this has decreased in recent years.

Main article: Culture of Malaysia
A cook making murtabak, a type of pancake mixed with eggs, small pieces of meat and onions, in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multicultural and multilingual society. The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that lived there, along with the Malays who later moved there. Substantial influence exists from Chinese and Indian culture, dating back to when foreign trade began in the area. Other cultures that heavily influenced the culture of Malaysia include Persian, Arabic, and British culture. Due to the political structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities.

In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy". This policy defined Malaysian culture, stating that it must be based off the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in Malaysian culture. It also promoted the Malay language above others. This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy.

Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia. The two countries share a similar cultural heritage, sharing many traditions and items. However, disputes have arisen over things ranging from culinary dishes to Malaysia's national anthem. Strong feelings exist in Indonesia about protecting their national heritage. The Malaysian government and the Indonesian government have met to defuse some of the tensions resulting from the overlaps in culture.[189] Feelings are not as strong in Malaysia, where most recognise that many cultural values are shared.

Art and Music
See also: Music of Malaysia
Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred around the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing. Traditional art ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Common artworks included ornamental kris, beetle nut sets, and woven batik fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India.

Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the Kelantan-Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensemble such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in the southern Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia and Brunei. Johor state on the south of Peninsular Malaysia has an apparent Arab and Persian influence in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like Gambus and Samrah.

Main article: Malaysian literature
Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century. English has also become a common literary language. The arrival of the printing press was key in allowing literature to be accessed by more than those rich enough to afford handwritten manuscripts.

However, there was still a division between the royal Malays, who knew English, and the lower classes, who only read Malay. In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in other bumiputra languages was called "regional literature", while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature". Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is popular, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages.

The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. One of the more famous Malay works is the Sulalatus al-Salatin, also known as the Sejarah Melayu (meaning "The Malay Annals"). It was originally recorded in the 15th century, although it has been edited since then. The story of Hang Tuah, another classic, drew from this original story when it was written. Both were nominated as world heritage items under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 'Memory of the World' programme. Until the 19th century, literature produced in Malaysia focused mainly on tales of royalty. It was after this point that it expanded to other areas.

Main article: Malaysian cuisine
Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. Many cultures have greatly influenced the cuisine, from within the country and surrounding regions. Much of the influence comes from Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese and Sumatran culture, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route. The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.

Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another, for example Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes.Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using styles taken from another culture, This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Rice is popular in many dishes. Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy.

Holidays and festivals
Main article: Public holidays in Malaysia
Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some holidays are federally gazetted public holidays and some are public holidays observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, but are not public holidays. The most observed holiday is Hari Kebangsaan (Independence Day), otherwise known as Merdeka (Independence), on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May), and the King's birthday (first Saturday of June).

Muslim holidays are prominent in Malaysia, the most celebrated being Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri), (Malay for Eid al-Fitr). Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, the translation of Eid ul-Adha), Awal Muharram (Islamic New Year) and Maulidur Rasul (birthday of the Prophet) are also observed. Malaysian Chinese typically celebrate the same festivals observed by Chinese around the world, with Chinese New Year the most important. Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Diwali/Deepavali, the festival of light, while Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at Batu Caves.Malaysia's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter.
East Malaysians also celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai. Many other smaller communities existing in Malaysia also have their own holidays. Despite most of the festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, joint festivals are promoted to increase unity. Examples of this are the celebration of Kongsi Raya which is used when Hari Raya Puasa and Chinese New Year coincide. Similarly, the portmanteau Deepa Raya was coined when Hari Raya Puasa and Deepavali coincide.

Main article: Sport in Malaysia
Popular sports in Malaysia include badminton, bowling, football, squash and field hockey. Badminton matches attract thousands of spectators, and Malaysia, along with Indonesia, China, and the USA, has consistently held the Thomas Cup since 1948. The Malaysian Lawn Bowl's Federation (PLBM) was registered in 1997, and since then Malaysians have made progress on the international stage. Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939. The Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia (SRAM) was created on 25 June 1972, and has had great success in Asian Squash.

Malaysia has proposed a Southeast Asian football league. Hockey is famous in the country, with the men's national team ranked 15th in the world as of August 2010. The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup. The country also has its own Formula One track–the Sepang International Circuit. It runs for 310.408 kilometres (193 mi), and held its first Grand Prix in 1999.

The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Malaysian athletes have won a total of four Olympic medals, all of which are in badminton. The country has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia. It has been dominant in badminton, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998. The 1998 Commonwealth Games were the first time the torch relay went through more nations than just England and the host.

Main article: Media of Malaysia
Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition.The major opposition parties also have their own newspapers. Besides Malay newspapers, there are large circulation of English, Chinese and Tamil dailies. The media has been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians. In addition, there is a divide between the media in the two halves of the country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats them as colonies of the Peninsula.

The regulated freedom of the press has been criticised, and it has been claimed that the government threatens journalists with reduced employment opportunities and denial of family admittance to universities.The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections when they were unsure of their political situation. In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party. Sabah, where only one tabloid is not independent of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia. Legislation such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.

Infrastructure and Transport
Main article: Transport in Malaysia
The North-South Expressway
Malaysia's road network covers 98,721 kilometres (61,342 mi) and includes 1,821 kilometres (1,132 mi) of expressways. The longest highway of the country, the North-South Expressway, extends over 800 kilometres (497 mi) between the Thai border and Singapore. The road systems in Sabah and Sarawak are less developed and of lower quality in comparison to that of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. The country's official airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air service alongside two other carriers. The railway system is state-run, and covers a total of 1,849 kilometres (1,149 mi).Relatively inexpensive elevated Light Rail Transit systems are used in some cities, such as Kuala Lumpur.

Main article: Energy policy of Malaysia
Traditionally, energy production in Malaysia has been based around oil and natural gas. The country currently has 13GW of electrical generation capacity. However, the country only has 33 years of natural gas reserves, and 19 years of oil reserves, whilst the demand for energy is increasing. Due to this, the government is expanding into renewable energy sources. Currently 16% of electricity generation is hydroelectric, the remaining 84% being thermal. The oil and gas industry is currently dominated by state owned Petronas, and the energy sector as a whole is regulated by the Energy Commission of Malaysia, a statutory commission who governs the energy in the peninsula and Sabah, under the terms of the Electricity Commission Act of 2001.

Article from wikepedia.

M Anem
Senai, Johor,

Saturday, February 26, 2011


Endive (Cichorium endivia Linn) adalah sejenis sayuran daun dari keluarga COMPOSITAE yang baru di perkenalkan di Malaysia untuk digunakan sebagai sayuran segar atau ulam-ulaman. Tanaman ini hanya di tanam dikawasan tanah tinggi seperti di Cameroon Highland dan ada juga ditanam di kawasan tanah rendah di sekitar Johor Bahru. Nama lain sayuran ini adalah Endive ; Escarole (English), Chichoree frisee (Perancis), an-dewi (Indonesia), endiba (Filipina) dan phak-kat poi (Thailand). Tumbuhan yang berasal dari kawasan Meditrenean ini digunakan untuk sayuran segar salad atau di buat jeruk masin atau di celur. Artikel ini saya memperkenalkan teknologi sejenis sayuran baru yang ada ditanam di Malaysia tetapi kita kurang mengenalinya.

Sayuran endive ini paling luas ditanam di negara kawasan Eropah dan Amerika Utara dan di kawasan Asia Tenggara seperti di Filipina, Malaysia, Thailand dan juga Indonesia. Sayuran endive ini mengandungi zat setiap 100 g dengan 85 g air, karbohiderat (1.5 g), Protin (2 g), Lemak (0.3 g), Serat ( 1 g), K (300 mg), Mg (20 mg), Ca (80 mg), P (90 mg), Vitamin A (3,200 IU), Vitamin B (0.2 mg), Vitamin C (10 mg) dan Niacin (0.5 mg). Sayur ini juga mengandungi bahan Intybin yang menyebabkan rasa pahit pada daun ketika di makan. Tumbuhan ini renek tumbuh menegak dengan bentuk 'rosette' dan daun yang lebar berwarna hijau. Ketinggian ketika tampang lazimnya setinggi 50-150 cm dan menghasilkan bunga berwarna biru dan sebagainya. Bunganya terbuka pada waktu pagi selama 6 jam dan kebanyakan kultivar adalah menjalankan pendebungaan sendiri.

Endive sangat mudah ditanam dengan menggunakan biji benih. Kawasan tanah gembur dan subur dengan banyak baja organik sangat sesuai untuk ditanam dengan endive dan sediakan batas penanaman adalah lebih baik. Di kawasan tropika tanaman ini subur dikawasan tanah tinggi melebihi 500 meter dengan suhu lingkungan 18 - 20 celsius. Tanah dengan pH 6.5 - 7.2 sangat sesuai dengan pancaran cahaya matahari mencukupi. Biji benih hanya dihasilkan di kawasan temperate yang ada 'long daylight'.

Biji benih (Lihat foto sebelah) yang di impot dari luar negara perlu di semai dalam kotak semaian dan akan di pindahkan keatas batas tanaman selepas 1 bulan apabila mempunyai 4-5 helai daun. Batas tanaman disediakan lebih awal dan jarak penanaman disyorkan 25-40 cm x 25 - 40 cm. Penanaman endive yang terlalu rapat boleh menyebabkan serangan reput pangkal pada peringkat dewasa. Program pembajaan dengan baja organik dan baja NPK dengan kadar 120 kg Nitrojan, 20 kg P2O5 dan 45 kg K2O. Baja Magnesium diperlukan untuk tanaman endive ini dengan menyemburkan larutan Mangesium sulphate pada kepekatan 2% terus pada tanaman. Tanaman ini tidak tahan dengan keadaan terendam dan akan layu atau mati.

Serangan perosak dan penyakit pada tanaman endive tidak berapa serious. Kajian mendapati serangan Kulat Botrytis cinera dan Kulat Sclerotinia spp pada daun dan batang menjejaskan kualiti endiva. Terdapat serangan bakteria dikenali sebagai Penyakit Reput Pangkal. Serangan Bintik daun (Altenaria spp) menjejaskan daun. Terdapat juga serangan kulapok berdebu (Downy mildew) pada endiva disebabkan oleh Kulat Bremia latucae yang boleh di kawal dengan kombinasi IPM dan semburan racun kimia. Antara serangga yang menyerang tanaman endiva seperti Aphid (Aphid spp), Ulat makan daun (Keluarga Noctuidae) dan juga nematod. Elakkan menanam endiva selepas penanaman karot, kentang, beet atau apa-apa dari keluarga Compositae.

Endive matang selapas 60 -90 hari selepas di ubah keladang. Lazimnya daun bahagian atas akan ditutup untuk mampastikan kurang atau sederhana rasa 'pahit' pada daun. ada petani yang menutup bahagian atas endive selama 10 hari menggunakan tin untuk elakkan cahaya matahari. Terdapat beberapa kultivar yang memang kurang pahit di pasaran. Penuaian di mulakan apabila bahagian atas (head) bersaiz 250 - 400 mg dengan memotong pangkal tanaman menggunakan pisau tajam. Anggaran hasil endive lingkungan 20 metrik tan sehektar dikawasan sesuai. Hasil dituai akan mudah layu dan tahan hanya 1 hari sahaja. Bagi tujuan komersial endive yang disimpan dalam suhu 0 -1 celsius dengan kelembapan 90% mampu menjamin kesegaran sehingga 2 minggu.

Tanaman endive ini merupakan satu tanaman baru yang berpotensi untuk ditanam di Malaysia. Kemahiran teknikal petani mengenai tanaman ini tidak sukar kerana hampir sama dengan amalan agronomi tanaman leek, beet dan karot. Masaalah mungkin mendapatkan bekalan benih yang perlu diimpot dari luar negara dan promosi kepada orang ramai perlu dibuat untuk memperkenalkan tanaman ini. Diharap artikel ini sedikit sebanyak membantu pembaca mengetahui sayuran daun endiva yang berpotensi untuk di perluaskan di Malaysia.


M Anem
1 Malaysia


CHRYSANTHEMUM (Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn) atau 'Tangho' dari keluarga COMPOSITAE merupakan sejenis tanaman renek yang berasal dari kawasan Asia khususnya di China dan Kawasan Eropah serta Meeditrenean. Terdapat lebih dari 30 spesis chrysanthemum yang terdapat diseluroh dunia dengan pelbagai warna, rupabentuk dan kegunaan. Nama lain bagi tanaman ini ialah seperti crown daisy ; tangho (English), Shungiku (Japan), chop suey green (US), tango (Filipina), phaktango (Thailand) dan saruni walanda (Indonesia). Di Malaysia tanaman ini di tanam di Tanah Tinggi Cameroon Highland dan sedikit di Kundasang Sabah untuk kegunaan 'cut flower' dengan keluas lingkungan 30-35 hektar setiap tahun. Artikel ini saya membentangkan tekologi tanaman chrysanthemum berdasarkan pembacaan dari beberapa buku teknikal dan pengalaman penulis melawat tanaman ini di China pada tahun 2006.

Chrysanthemum di tanam di China secara komersial semenjak kurun ke 15 dulu dan kebanyakannya digunakan sebagai 'Teh Chrysanthemum' atau Teh Herba yang menjanjikan kesihatan. Daun muda dan pucuk mudanya menghasilkan aroma kuat begitu juga bunganya. Bahagian bunga sering dikeringkan untuk dijadikan teh secara komersial dan mendapat pasaran yang mekuas diseluruh Asia. Syarikat pengeluar minuman air kotak di Malaysia telah menghasilkan air kotak "Teh chrysanthemum" (seperti Yeo Hiap Seng dll). Tanaman ini juga dijadikan industri ornamental atau 'cut flower' yang popular di Malaysia dimana terdapat lebih 30 syarikat yang menghasilkan tanaman ini di Cameroon Highland. Chrysanthemum juga digunakan dalam menyembuhkan penyakit VD di Thailand, menyejukan tubuh badan dan sebagai 'insect repelent' yang sangat berkesan (Kandungan bahan Pyrethroids). Negara pengeluar utama chrysanthemum di Asia adalah China, Jepun dan Taiwan tetapi tiada statistik dikeluarkan. Negara lain yang luas menanam chrysanthemum ialah seperti USA, Australia, Jerman dan India.

Chrysanthemum adalah tanaman renek yang tumbuh menegak dan bercabang dengan ketinggian mencapai 20 - 60 cm semasa tampang dan setinggi 90 cm ketika berbunga bergantung kepada varieti dan kesuburan tanah. Daunnya berbentuk oblong atau ovate yang bersilang dengan ukuran 3-13 cm panjang dan 1-4 cm lebar. Bunganya berangkai dengan ukuran 3-6 diameter kelopak bersusun 2 lapisan kebanyakannya berwarna kuning. Setiap 100 g bahagian tanaman chrysanthemum yang boleh di makan terdapat 94 g air, protin (2.7 g), Vitamin A (0.4-3 mg), Vitamin B1 (0.15 mg), Vitamin B2 (0.30 mg), Vitamin C (17-45 mg) dan Kalsium (75 mg). Berat 1,000 biji benih chrysanthemum adalah 1.5 gram.

Penanaman chrysanthemum atau tangho lazimnya menggunakan biji benih (foto sebelah) tetapi terdapat juga pembiakan dengan kaedah keratan batang. Kaedah keratan batang akan mengambil masa 30 hari untuk berakar. Benih tangho tahan disimpan selama 2 tahun dan boleh ditabur teus keladang atau di semai dalam kotak semaian. Anak benih tangho yang setinggi 3-4 cm boleh di ubah keladang. Jarak penanaman bergantung kepada keadaan menanam tetapi paling sesuai pada jarak 5-15 cm x 5-15 cm. Penuaian tangho boleh dibuat selepas 4-5 minggu disemai dimana ketinggian pokok 5-10 cm. Menuai dengan mencabut keseluruhan pokok atau dengan memotong batang dalam masa satu bulan. Kaedah lain menuai adalah dengan membiarkan pokok di tuai berperingkat2 sehingga 3 bulan dengan ketinggian pokok 15-15 cm.

Kadang-kadang cantasan pucuk dijalankan untuk menggalakkan pengeluaran cabang baru dan mengekalkan fasa tampang pokok. Pengeluaran bunga yang terlalu awal akan menyebabkan kualiti tangho menurun kerana kurang aroma dan citarasa. Tanaman chrysanthemum juga sesuai ditanam secara 'intercropping; kerana ia boleh dan sesuai ditanam dibawah teduhan. Pemerhatian dan rujukan mendapati tanaman tangho tidak menpunyai banyak masaalah serangan serangga dan penyakit. Masaalah dihadapi adalah persaingan dengan rumpai yang berlawan dengan tangho untuk tumbuh dikawasan terbuka. Tanaman ini mudah layu selepas di tuai dan tahan hanya 2 hari sahaja selepas di potong dan di bungkus dengan baik. Jika dijadikan bunga keratan seperti di Cameroon Highland dan dimasukkan dalam pasu/vase di rumah mampu bertahan sehingga 5-7 hari sahaja.

Penanaman chrysanthemum di Malaysia pada tahap kecil dan hanya untuk tujuan ornamental bagi menghasilkan bunga keratan. Potensi tanaman ini untuk di kembangkan lagi banyak bergantung kepada kesediaan teknologi dan permintaan pasaran. Benih tanaman ini 100% diimpot dari luar negara dan banyak varieti yang boleh ditanam di negara kita. Tanaman chrysanthemum untuk dijadikan makanan kesihatan dan teh masih perlu dikaji kesesuaiannya.


M Anem
Pct 11



Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...