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Friday, December 17, 2010

Chempedak Clones in Malaysia

Cempedak (Artocarpus chempeden syn Artocarpus integer) was a tropical fruit trees. Cempedak was under Moraceae family and originated form South East Asia and largely grown in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and other ASEAN Country. Cempedak was grown in Malaysia as a commercial commodity or grown either as a monocrop or mixed commodity with few other fruit types such as durian, rambutan, duku etc in traditional village. This article discuss about chempedak technology based on my field experience as an agronomist and reference to tropical fruit books and other dources. I interviewed few chempedak growers in Muar, Melaka and Selangor.


Department of Agriculture Malaysia recorded about 10,679 hectare (Production about 39,024 mt) cempedak was grown as CHE in 2006 and increase the size to 11,050 ha in 2009 with annual production for 53,010 metric tonnes. Cempedak was largely grown in few states such as in Sarawak (Kuching District about 366 ha) followed by Selama District, Perak (250 ha) and Sipitang District, Sabah (245 ha) in 2009 respectively. For 2010 it was estimated about 11,480 ha cempedak planted with the estimated production 55,130 mt. This article explore 25 chempedak clones registered to DOA in Malaysia since 1939 based on my study and observation as an extension agent for the past 30 years.

Cempedak fruit is yellow, brown or green in color contains between 100-500 seeds depend on clones. The fruit is barrel or pear shaped while the seeds are shaped like kidneys. The seeds are surrounded by a soft yellowish or reddish flesh which can be eaten fresh without cooking. The flesh has a strong smell, sweet and sometimes juicy. The seeds can be eaten as roasted or boiled. The cempedak flesh is also used for making jams and cakes or other processed product. The best about cempedak is "Fried Cempedak" of locally called "Cempedak Goreng" coated with special flour which bring a strong smell from distance (See left photo of cempedak goreng).




Below is the chempedak clones in Malaysia :

1. CH 1 (No Local names)
Registered in 16.1.1938 by unknown owner from Ulu Benut Johor. It has medium size fruit, average sweetness and juicy.

2. CH 2 (No Local Names)
Registered in 7.2.1939 by Mr Duncan Robert Ltd. from Singapore. The skin color are orange green, also as pulp are orange and fibrous.

3. CH 4 (No Local Names)
Registered in 5.2.1940 by unknown owner from Changkat Jong, Perak. This clone produce high yield with orange pulp and skin colour and claimed very tasty.

4. CH 14 (No Local Names)
Clone CH14 registered in 27.2.1940 by Mrs Soah bte Hasan from Lubok Bingkong Agriculture Station in Perak. The fruit are medium size, green skin color, thick pulp, sweet with orange color.

5. CH 15 (Local Name : Duncan Robert)
Registered in 17.9.1949 by DOA Officer from Sg Udang Agriculture Station , Melaka. This clone able to produce high yield, medium sweet and orange thick pulp.

6. CH 17 (Local Name : Chempedak Nangka)
Registered in 25.1.1959 this clone are among biggest in size and dark yellow just look like Jackfruit. The pulp yellowish and juicy, moderate sweetness and produce average yield. The owner are Mr Lee Bee Loong from Buloh Kasap, Segamat, Johor. I manage to visit his farm and eat some ripe fruit during my tenure as Segamat District Agriculture Officer for 4 years from 2000 to 2004.

7. CH 18 (No local name)
Registered by Mr Lam Peng Chong in 2.6.1973 from Bentong Pahang. The fruit shape elongated and small size. The pulp has medium thickness and mild yellow color.

8. CH 19 (No local name)
This clone registered in 26.7.1978 by Mr Hew Soo Lim from Semenyih, Selangor.

9. CH 20 (No local name)
This clone own by Mr Pih Tiap from Sg Chua, Kajang, Selangor. Registration date was 2.8.1973 with dark green skin color, thick pulp and moderate aroma.

10. CH 21 (Local name : Air Hitam 1)
Registered by Mr Mat bin Jaafar from Yong Peng, Johor in 22.8.1973. The skin color are yellow with reddish spot. The aroma are very strong, thick pulp and very tasty.


11. CH 22 (Local name : Air Hitam 2)
Registered by Mr Mat bin Jaafar from Yong Peng, Johor in 22.8.1973. This clone has a yellow skin colour with reddish spot. It has a very strong aroma, thick pulp and sweet taste.


12. CH 23 (Local Name: Air Hitam 3)
The clone are registered by Mat bin Jaafar also from Yong Peng, Johor. The registration date was at 22.8.73 and has a very strong taste with yellow skin.


13. CH 24 (Local Name : Air Hitam 4)
This clone registered in 1973 also by Mr Mat bin Jaafar from Yong Peng Johor. '

14. CH 25 (Local name : Air Hitam 5)
This CH25 chempedak clone was registered by Mr Mat bin Jaafar as the owner and originated from Yong Peng, batu Pahat, Johor. The skin was yellowish red colour with a strong smell and aweet taste.


15. CH 26 (Local name : Paya Jaras)

Registered in 22.8.1973 by unknown owner. The fruit are long shape with green yellow skin color. The pulp color are light green, thick and soft texture with very strong aroma. This clone has large seed size. For me this is one popular clone in Malaysia since early 1973 and used as commercial chempedak. Many farmers grow this clone from Rehabilitation of fruit diversification program (AID) from DOA in that year.


16. CH 27 (No Local Name)
This clone registered by DOA personnel from Serdang Horticulture Station, Selangor in 1.6.1978. It has huge fruit size up to 15 inch with yellow skin color.


17. CH 28 (No Local Name)

The clone has a birth certificate on 1.6.1978. The owner DOA station at Serdang, Selangor. The length up to 12 inch or 1 feet and with yellow skin color. The pulp is yellow in color with strong aroma and very sweet.


18. CH 29 (Local name : Kuang 4)

The Kuang 4 clone was registered in 1.6.1978 by unknown owner from Sungai Buloh, Selangor. The fruit are large, green skin color, thick pulp, yellow and big size seed. There was a bitter taste for this clone. This clone also popular among growers in Malaysia and commercially grown in Selangor, Perak, West Pahang and Northern Johor. I managed to test the fruit from Serdang Agriculture Station 12 years ago.


19. CH 30 (Local name : Kuang 5)

As above Kuang 4, this clone also registered by unknown owner from Sungai Buloh Selangor in 1.6.1978. It has similarity as Kuang 4 except this variety has orange pulp color. This was the most popular chempedak clones in Malaysia for many years. The pulp are thick, very sweet and moderate aroma. I managed to buy from fruit stall and direct from local farmers in Segamat during fruit festive season in July or August every year.


20. CH 31 (local name : Asun)
This cllone registered in 25.6.1989 by Mr Jamaludin bin Mat Isa from Kg Banggul Lalang, Gurun, Kedah. It has a large fruit size up to 7 kg/fruit and smooth skin. The pulp are yellow, sweet, watery and soft texture.' Asun' also has big seed size.



21. CH 32 (Local name : Bekah)

The clone owned by Hj Kasa from Kg Telok, Mukim Biinjal, Kedah and registered to DOA in 10.8.1989. The fruit average weight about 3 kg with elongated shape and thin skin. The pulp are thick, watery, sweet, compact and fibrous. I never taste this clone and seldom found in southern region.


22. CH 33 (Local name : Chin)

This clone registered in 15.8.1989 by Tn Hj Abdullah bin Darus from Kg Padang Hassan, Kota Setar, Kedah. The average weight about 2.5 kg and considered as medium size. The pulp medium thickness, sweet, soft texture and orange in color. I also never has chance to eat this clone and seldom grown in Johore where I spent 16 years service.


23. CH 34 (Local name : Singkir)

The locl name for this CH 34 are sceptical and funny. This clone registered in 15.12.1989 by Mr Jamaludin bin Md Isa from Kg Banggul Lalang, Gurun, Kedah. The fruit are large size (5-7 kg each) and elongated shape. The fruit skin are brownish yellow with green spotted area. The pulp are pale yellowish color, medium sweet and less fruit (low production). I never experience to test this clone because during my visit to northern state normally off-season.


24. CH 35 (Local Name : Sri Temoh)

The clone belong to Mr Lim Leong Kee from Jalan Kampar, Temoh, Perak (my friends for many years and owner of fruit nursery). I has many time eat this clone during my visit to his farm and nursery in middle 1990's before he register "Sri Temoh" on 11.4.1991. The fruit average weight about 3-5 kg, long shape, green yellow skin color and had smooth skin when the fruit fully ripe. The pulp size are large with about 10-15 pieces in a fruit. The taste are mild , sweet, and less fiber with red yellow pulp color. As I check with the owner, this clone are seedless or small seed size and I prefer to grow this clone in Southern Peninsular Region.


25. CH CH 36 (Local name : Hasar)

This clone was the last in the list of chempedak clone registered to DOa in 10.9.1992 by the owner Mr A Rahman bin Junid from Banting, Selangor. I may not able to test this clone yet and waiting somebody to invite me during fruit season. The fruit are "Dempak" shape with weigh about 3-4 kg per fruit. The skin color are 'Jingga' green. The pulp are thick, orange yellow, sweet, fine texture and moderate aroma. I had no comment about this clone.


All the chempedak clones above has to be somewhere in this country. Experts on chempedak identification yet to be trained due to there are not many profesional in the clone identification skill. Some DOA agriculture station may have major chempedak clone collection. The old registered variety may still at the backyard of most farmers and few left as commercial farm. Study and preservation of the registered clone has to be done to ensure availability and potential for plant breeding.



By
M Anem
READ AS HABIT
Pct 11
Putra...ja..yyaa

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