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Tuesday, March 8, 2011

FOOD PRESERVATION TECHNOLOGY


For preserving foods can be done several good technique which uses high technology and simple technology. The trick also vary with different levels of difficulty but the core of food preservation is an attempt to restrain the rate of growth of micro-organisms in food. Here are a few standard techniques that have been known in general by the wider community of the world. This article talks about 6 basic food preservation technology suitable for Malaysian Food Processing Entrepreneurs. Some of the technology are single technology whilst the other used few combination food preservation technology. From my observation on Agro-based Industry Project and Food Processing during my tenure as senior agriculture expansionist in Johor for 14 years, the technology applied are merely from the latest technology to produce high quality product and safe to consumer.


1. Refrigeration
This technique is most famous for his technique often used by the general public in the village and the town. Concepts and theories of the refrigeration system is to put food on the place or room temperature is very low. To cool food or drinks can be put into the refrigerator or refrigerator, or it could also put in the container that contains ice.Fishermen usually use a container that contains ice to preserve fish catch. In the houses typically use a refrigerator to preserve vegetables, fruits, meat, sausages, eggs, and so forth. Temperature is usually normal food to cool temperate 15 degrees Celsius. Whereas for durability are usually stored at the site of the temperature from 0 to -4 degrees Celsius. The technology called "MINIMUM PROCESS" or MP related to this refrigeration techniques with some tropical fruit such as jackfruit, mango, guava, pineapple, banana, papaya, ciku and few others.

2. Fumigation
How to fumigation is to put food in the box and then smoked from below.Fumigation technique does not actually make the food to be durable in the long term, because the necessary combination of salting and drying techniques. The fumigation technique need special equipment, processing skill and experience. Not may food preservation are processed by fumigation. The fumigation process in Malaysia are new technology adopted from Australia under Malaysia-Australia Cooperation Technical Working Group Agreement towards this technology. Only selected vegetables, rice, paddy, maize and few cereal crop normally use this fumigation technology.


3. Canning
This one is entering the system of food into aluminum cans or other metal materials, and given as a preservative chemicals such as salt, acid, sugar and so forth. Materials are usually canned vegetables, meat, fish, fruits, milk, coffee, and more stuff. Canning techniques include alloy chemistry and physics techniques. Chemical engineering is to provide preservatives, while physics because canned in the vacuum. From my observation pineapple canning is the most popular technology in Malaysia since decade ago by Lee Pineapple and few other company and Malaysia is one of the largest canned pineapple in syrup producers in the world. Canning for mixed fruit recently became popular technology to preserved tropical fruits. Jackfruit, papaya, rambutan, lychee, pineapple, guava and few others are one of the Thailand's export in the world. Canning of fruit or vegetable product normally with sweet syrup or other technology.


4. Drying
Micro-organism like a damp or wet places containing water. So drying technique to make a dry food with water content as low as possible while dried, baked, heated, and so forth. The more moisture in the food, it will be easy to process food spoilage. Drying is a simple technology used for thousands years ago by human civilization with drying activity under the sun. The moisture content in the dried product are measured with special equipment and proper packaging method. Among popular product using drying method in Malaysia is Kundur Manis Kering, Buah Pala Kering, Halwa Betik, Ikan Kering, Sotong Kering and many more.


5. Sweetened
Sweetened foods is by placing or putting food on the medium containing glucose or SUGAR with a concentration of 40% to reduce levels of microorganisms. If dyed at 70% concentrations, it can prevent damage to food. Examples of sweetened food is like candied fruit, milk, jelly, jelly, and so forth. Few product with processed with sweetened technology are Halwa Betik, Halwa Manis, Dendeng Jantung Pisang, Jem Nenas, Jem Kelapa and many more. The quality of sweetened product depends on raw material, type of sugar used, duration and preservation or packaging technology.


6. Curing
This last way of using NaCl or materials that we know as table salt to preserve food. This technique is called also referred to as salting. Table salt has properties that inhibit the development and growth of food spoilage microorganisms or destroyer. Examples such as salted fish as a combination of salting with drying. In Malaysia the salted fish are big industry from decade ago with million ringgit every year. The salted preserved fish may last long if properly stored. In Kuching Sarawak ;Ikan Terubuk Segar Masin" is a popular industry at Satok Wet Market.
Salted fruit product are preserved technology applied for dried salted lime, picked-salted fruit, salted mango, salted asam jawa and many others. This simple technology is one of the oldest technology and the cheapest with long durability of preserved product.

By,
M Anem
Alor Setar
Kedah
Malaysia

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