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Friday, February 19, 2010

NEMATODE







NEMATODE?
What is it?..... I was first heard about nematode on my second year during university in 1978.
Nematode actually is a type of "roundworms" from the most diverse of Pseudoceolomates with more than 28,000 types in which about 16,000 has Parasitic Characteristic. Nematode can live in the soil, plants (especially root) and water. Nematode use plant cell (root, stem and leaf parts) as food source so that cause damage the whole crop to serious stage. Nematode are the "Host" for certain Virus as a vector.

Physically, nematode cause a serious problem especially in food crop plants. The symptom of attack such lesion or cause blackish colour leaf/stem of the plants. Other symptom was slow plant growth rate, Leaf Clorosis, Major Leaf Falls and stunted trees. It worst during dry season due to lack of water and evapotranspiration. Nematode develop Root-Knot at the root hair that block the nutrient and water to flow in the Xylem and Phylum system. Local District Department of Agriculture reported the most popular Nematode in Malaysia found are Guava Nematode (Meloigyne spp). Its was due to the ability and frequency to attack crop like Guava (Psidium guava) and Chili (Capsicum annum). The attack on its root cause guava leaf turn to blackish colour, root rot and damage the rooting system. Durian (Durio zigberthinus) also attack by a type of nematode ( Xipinema spp) but the symptom are not severe as those attack in guava.

There was few (4) control measures for nematode technically. First control measures is by Chemical application. The Fumigant can reduce nematodes in soil and the best application during dry season but the cost is expensive. Carbofuran (Local brand such as NEMACUR) or Fenamiphos (FURADAN) can be use at difference treatment level. Nemacur used at 20-25 gram/tree at four (4) monthly interval. For Furadan (Bnad Furadan 3G) the recommendation rate is 50 - 60 gram/tree. Application by chemical need proper advisory supervision by DOA or authority on Fumigation Activity.

For second control measures is "HOT WATER TREATMENT" method by dipping young seedling (eg banana/Chili) in 55 Celsius water for 20-25 minutes. Third measures was Biological control is using bacteria intrusion to affected area to reduce nematode population . Two type of bacteria was Bacillus petrans and Paecelomuces lilacinus. The fourth control measures is to apply Good Agriculture Practices such as the use resistant variety, application of huge organic fertilizer (Chicken dung etc), inter cropping system, use of seashell material and reject imported soil from affected area.





Inspection of nematode on Guava plot at TKPPM Sekijang Segamat Johor by writers.


Writers visit to PPK Muar Dalam Guava Farm at Chempelak ZPM in Segamat-Muar Border, Johor growing Guava Farm recently shows that the whole 20 ha farm attacked with nematode seriously. About 85% of guava trees (age 8 years) and 65% of banana was damaged at more than 80% severity. Application of Nemacur and Furadan was implemented but it's too late and not economic. The MOA Inc Team visited the farm last months and advised the management to replace with new crop. Other area was in Sengkang, Bukit Gambir where guava growing area that was seriously damaged due to nematode attack. Nematode is a type of worm unwanted to guava farmers.

TALK ABOUT NEMATODE......SCARY METHOD....
TO CONTROL NEMATODE....NEED KNOWLEDGE....
SYMPTOM NEMATODE ATTACK... IT IS A SLACK..
GUAVA, CHILI....FAVORITE ATTACK...

Relared articles:
1. Racun Nematod (Click here)
2. Kawalan Perosak Bersepadu - IPM (Klik sini)
3. Plant diseases (Click here)
4. Jambu Batu (Klik disini)
5. What's is in the soil? (Click here)

By
M Anem
DOA MUAR


JOHOR
MALAYSIA

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