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Saturday, December 11, 2010

Talk about Jackfruit

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heteropyllus Linn syn Artocarous integra Merr.) under family Moraceae or locally known as NANGKA in Malaysia is a popular fruit tree grown as tropical fruit trees. It was grown in Malaysia as a commercial commodity or grown as mixed commodity with few other fruit types such as durian, rambutan, duku etc in traditional village. Department of Agriculture Malaysia record about 3,123 hectare was grown as CHE in 2006 and increase the size to only 3,500 ha in 2009 with annual production for 27,830 metric tonnes. Jackfruit was popular in few states such as in Pahang State (Temerloh District about 207 ha) followed by Kota Tinggi Johor (192 ha) and Segamat Johor (136 ha) in 2008 respectively. For 2010 it was estimated about 3,650 ha jackfruit planted with the estimated production 28,960 mt.

The jackfruit tree is a wood perennial crop with erected trunk up to 10-15 feet tall. The main trunk with branching system with dark green leaf. Most of the jackfruit in Malaysia produce the flower and fruit on the main trunk and main branch. The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy, fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber. The flavour is similar to a tart banana. Varieties of jackfruit are distinguished according to the characteristics of the fruits' flesh and their tree marphology. Most farmers prefer to select the new variety with less latex and big size of fruit.

Jackfruit is suitable to be grown with sandy loam soil and proper drainage system. Jackfruit tree cannot survive if the root system submerged for more than 4 hours under water. Department of Agriculture Malaysia (DOA( recommended the planting distance for jackfruit is 9 meter x 9 meter to provide 123 trees/ hectare. Vigorous seedling selected from germinated seeds or budded seedling or other method of seedling production. The seedling must free from unwanted disease and pests. Basic Agronomic Practices of jackfruit planting must be followed.

About more than 6 clone of jackfruit registered in Malaysia with DOA since 1960'es throughout the nation. There is two clones strongly recommended for Jackfruit planting in Malaysia is Clone Clone J29, Clone J 31, Clone Tekam Yellow, Clone Mantin and the latest clones was Clone J33 (Nangka Madu). Clone Uncle Hong, Crystal clone known as best clone in Johor but not registered with DOA. Clone J29 has a very big size up to 10 kg per fruit and their skin yellowish and reddish flesh with less sticky latex. For J31 clones it was smaller in size with an average about 6 kilogram per fruit and yellowish flesh with strong smell. J33 is the latest clones registered and has an export quality standard for fresh consumption.

M Anem

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