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Thursday, December 16, 2010

Guava Clone in Malaysia

Guava or Jambu Batu (Psidium guava Linn.) was grown wisely in Malaysia for fresh consumption, export market and also for processing. There was Seedless Guava variety and With Seed Variety. The seedless variety was not many recommended for commercial growing due to its unstable characteristic such as Clone GU15. Guava with seed was more popular such as Clone GU8, Clone GU9 and Clone GU 10. Total area of guava in Malaysia was 1,440 hectare with an annual production of 18,880 mt in 2011. Area grown with guava was in Daerah Muar in Johor (213 ha) , Daerah Batang Padang in Perak (185 ha) and Daerah Segamat in Johor (68 ha). Guava are rich with vitamins, minerals and nutritious. Fresh guava are consumed all year round by local citizens and easily purchased in various outlets. The most critical problem in guava plantation in Malaysia are the agronomic practices that is the attack of nematode. There is costly to control the attack of nematode when it was at serious stage. This article I would like to elaborate my knowledge and experience about guava clones in "Anim Agro Technology" registered in Malaysia to Department of Agriculture Malaysia from my study in various sources and references.

There are about 13 guava clone registered in Malaysia since 1951 with the Department of Agriculture registry system. Many farmers only knows few clones available surrounding such as GU 8 and GU 9 for so many years. The latest registered guava varieties are GU11 that is locally known as Jambu Batu Lohan (Giant guava) from Batu Pahat in 2012 from state of Johor.  Since then, not many new guava varieties or clones introduced in Malaysia. However we welcome those plant breeders, farmers with new guava varieties to register with DOA if they have new guava varieties. Below are the registered guava clone for us to know the guava history in Malaysia.

1. Guava: Clone GU 15
This clone registered in 26.6.1991 are among the latest clone in the country. Other local name was "Jade Seedless" and study shown that this clone was originated from Vietnam. The owner detected from Bidor Perak (No names available). This is a seedless guava with pear shape and elongated shape. The fruit skin color are green, white flesh, crispy and sour sweet taste. This clone are popular clone among seedless variety.

2. Guava : GU 14
This clone registered on 24.1.1987 by a farmers (no names) from Sungkai, Perak. Local names of this clone are "TCG or Thai Cambodian Guava". The fruit are seedless, round shape, sweet sour taste, white flesh and coarse texture. I seldom found farmers in Muar, Johor growing this clone and may be found in Tapah, Perak and its surroundings.

3. Guava GU13
Guava Clone GU13 registered in 20.1.1987 by a farmers from Perak (No names available) and believed originated from Thailand. Other given name are "Dam Rung". The fruit shape are round, sweet taste, crispy and SEEDLESS variety. The yielding ability are low and not recommended for big scale plantation.

4. Guava : GU 12
This clone given name are "Buah Hati Seronok" and registered in 20.11.1987 by Mr Choy Chor Nam from Raub, Pahang. This is a SEEDLESS variety with big size of fruit, round shape, sweet with some sour taste, thick and white flesh colour. Some farmers in pahang and Johor growing this clone for domestic market.

5. Guava : GU11
Guava Clone GU11 registered in 30.8.1985 and it believed to be originated from Vietnam. The owner is from Bidor Perak (No Names). Fruit size are medium, greenish white skin colour, fine texture, sweet and crispy. I seldom find this clone in sothern region.

6. Guava : GU 10
The other name are "Klom Sali" registered in 30.8.1985 by Agriculture Officer at Serdang Agriculture Station , Selangor. The fruit has green whitish skin color, white flesh, sweet, round shape and medium fruit size. This clone is one of the popular clone is many location in this country.

7. Guava : GU9
This is among popular guava clone in Malaysia and registered in 20.5.1985 by Agriculture Officer from Serdang Station, Selangor. There is less seed in this fruit with round shape. The fruit is sweet, white flesh, thick and crispy. This clone considerd OK and planted mostly in Selangor and Perak region.

8. Guava : GU8
Clone GU8 or locally known as "Jambu Kampuchea" is the most popular clone grown in Malaysia until today. I estimate about 65% of guava planted in Malaysia was GU8. This clone registered in 30.6.1984 by an officer (no names) from Serdang Agriculture Station, Selangor. The fruit roundish in shape, big size, sweet sour taste, thick and white flesh and crispy. The are many seeds for this clone. I has many years experience in managing Guava GU8 clone during fruit project implementation bya local farmers in Muar and Segamat.

9. Guava : GU 7
Guava Clone GU7 also called "Jambu MAHA 3" was registered in 2.6.1973 by unknown owners. The fruit are big size, round shape, with mild green skin color and contains lots of seed. It produce high yield and strong recommended for guava juice making. This clone seldom found in Johor and not realy popular.

10. Guava : GU6
This clone registered in 2.6.1973 by Mr Lam Peng Chong from Banting, Selangor. Other given local name for this clone are "SEEDLESS GUAVA". The fruity capacity are low, uneven shape and seedless. This is the earliest seedless guava introduced in this country but not many farmers happy with this clone due to its low fruit-set.

11. Guava : GU 5
This clone registered in 12.2.1973 by unknown owner. This fruit claimed to be best for juice making with large fruit size, sweet sour taste and light green skin colour. As I surveyed there is not many farmers groeing this GU 5 clone nowadays.

12. Guava : GU 4
This clone registered in 18.12.1955 by DOA personnel from Serdang Agriculture Station , Selangor. Other local given name are "Lucknow No 4X Thailand" with large fruit size and green yellowish skin colour. The clone has a very strong aroma and less seed numbers.

13. Guava : GU2
This clone registered in 30.5.1951 by Mr Lee Ah Kim from Bukit Merah, Perak. The clone given local name are "Jambu Kapri" with average sweetness, white flesh, medium size and average weight of 147 gram/ fruit. This clone claimed to be very tasty. This clone popular in early 1960's and 1970's and used for domestic market.

14. GU 11 (Latest variety)
The latest guava variety registered in Malaysia are "Giant Guava" or "Lohan Guava" from Batu Pahat Johore (Foto next ). This clone make a havoc  2-4 years ago when introduced by authority in Farmers Day Festival in Johor. The fruit size is very big (my estimate an average of 600 - 700 gram / fruit) and crispy taste, sweet, white flesh and roundish long shape. The special characteristic of this clone are this ability to bear flower without heavy pruning activities like other varieties such as other local popular varieties GU 8 (Kampuchea). I personally has a technical paper of this giant guava (Click here). From my observation, this varieties has a huge demand in market due to the better taste and appearance. From my observation to many GU11 guava farms in Johore and Melaka, the farmers able to earn more income by growing this varieties compare to the other varieties due to high productivity, less labor usage for pruning and larger fruit size.

Guava is among popular tropical fruit for fresh consumption and processed. "Dried Guava" are among popular snack processed from lower guava grades and exported to Europe, Japan, West Asia and neighbouring countries. I had huge experience in growing 80 hectare of guava when act as pioneer mentor for TKPM Sekijang development project. Guava has a good prospect in future for Minimum Processed (MP) product.


M Anem
Senior Agronomist 
Department of Agriculture
Muar, Johor,
(Updated by 1 Mac 2013)

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