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Thursday, December 17, 2009

Technology in Chilli Planting

Chili MC 10 variety was grown at TKPM Sekijang.

Chilli (Capsicum annum) is a fruit type vegetable and popular in Malaysian Cuisene and hot. Chilli was originated from Mexico and South America but adopted to Malaysian Tropical Climate many decade ago. About 14,560 hectare of chilli was grown in Malaysia annually in major producing state such as Johor, Perak adn Kelantan in Commercial Scale. Chili was suitable in temperature from 20-30 Celcius with rainfall between 1,500 mm - 2,000 mm monthly and it can adapt to pH between 5.5 - 6.8 on mineral soil, peat or Bris Soil (With proper irrigation syatem). Red Chilli or Green Chilli are the product depend on harvesting period and different market needs. Study shows that Malaysian took 33,000 ton/year of fresh chilli anually whereby the local production around 23,000 tan/year. Malaysia also import chilli from Thailand (Cili Padi Variety) about 5,000 kg daily through Bukit Kayu Hitam Border.

Chilli rich with nutrient content and reported that every 100 gm chilli contain Karotena Beta (2,730 microgram), Posforus (80 mg), Niacin (0.7 mg), Vitamin B1, B2, C and others. The most popular lowland grown chilli in Mayalsia was MC 10 Variety. Farmers grows this variety commercially as monocrop and some as mixed crop with water melon. Chilli needs seedling preparation in nursery for 40 days before transplanting (About 8,600 seeds/ha). Selected seeds treated with TSP, Capstan or Thiram (Fungicide) before sowing. Land preparation need the land clearing, ploughing, bed preparation, irrigation system, plastic silvershine layering and basal manuring (organic manure).

Farmers enjoy green chili at TKPM Sekijang toghether with District
Agriculture Oficer who provide extension services.

Planting of chilli from selected seedling was done after completion of land preparation with 7,100 seedling planted per hactare. Planting distance 0.75 m x 1.5 m and replacement of mortal seedling done accordingly. wood support erected both side of tree to straightened the tree. Watering, manuring and pest control follows Package Tachnology from Department of Agriculture. Basic fertlizer 15:15:15 applied at 20gm/tree and 12:12:17:2 at 35 gm/tree when it starts bearing fruit. Manuring schadule maintain at 250 kg/ha.

Pest and diseases are common in chilli and need to control from early stage. Among regular pests are Leaf Mites (Aphis spp) is can cause damage to the leaves (Kerekot) and confirm that it a virus carrier. to control by spraying Chloropyrifos up to 2.5 month period. Trips (Trips spp) also cause kreekot to the tree and as virus carrier. Other pests are Fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera), Fruit Fly (Bactocera spp) Red Mites (Trtranychus spp) and Snail (Achantina filica). Common diseses in chilli are Fruit Antracnose (Collectotricum capsici), Soft , Hawar Pucuk (Choanephora cucurbitarum), Leaf Spot (Cercosporrot (Sclerotium rolfsii) a capsici), bacterial Wilt (Ralstonis solanacerum) , Leaf Mozaic (Virus Mozaic) and control by chemical or IPM.

Studies shows that in Malaysia to grow one hectare of Chilli required RM 10,660.00 as cost of production and estimated yield are normally about 15,000 kg/ha. With farm price at RM 2.50 per/kg the Gross Income ia RM 37,500 with net income RM 26,736.50 perhectare. it shows that cost of production of chilli in Malaysia about RM 0.72 /kg and return to one ringgit investment is RM 3.48. Chili among top ranking grown by Malaysian Vegetable farmers due to high demand and stable price.


Related articles from this blog:
1. Cili Padi (Click here)
2. Cili Api 'Centil" (Click here)
3. Capsaicin yang pedas (Click here)
4. Cashflow Chili (Click here)
5. Cili Benggala-Bell Pepper (Click here)

M Anem
DOA Muar

Johor, Malaysia

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