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Thursday, November 5, 2009

Durian Clones in Malaysia

A durian farm at Tangkak, Muar, Johor with Mun Thong clone intercroped with banana.

Durian (Durio zibethinnus Murr) is a tropical crop that is popular in South East Asia and known as "King of the Fruit". There is about 400,000 hectare of durian planted throught the world. In Malaysia durian was grown about 100,000 hectare in 1995 but it the hectarage trend was decreasing to about 45,000 hectare in 2005. Malaysia exports about RM 58 million in 1995 but only about RM45 million in 2005 to neighbouring countries such as Singapore (60%) , China, Australia, Brunei and others. There is about 200 durian clones in Malaysia but only 15 clone are grown comercially. Most of the clones registered with Department of Agriculture and the names given based on the locality or the origin.

Mun Thong clone almost ripen and suitable for fresh and for chip durian.
The D24 and D168 is the most popular among Malaysian.

Recently the durian hectarage reduced tremendously especially in Durian active producing area such as in Perak, Johor, Pahang and other states. This is due to the competition with industrial crop (Oil Palm) that gives more income to farmers and food crops such as vegetable and other new tropical fruit suah as Piataya. Youngsters also does not like to eat fresh durian due to smell and the change of life style. Most of the traditional durian clone was chop down gradually due to low price during peak season especially Not Clone Durian tree.

Below are few clones popular in Malaysia:

a. D 24
Durian D24 was the most popular clones in Malaysia with every body can remember the numbers. This clone also known as "BUKIT MERAH" and registered to Agriculture Department in Non 1937 which was the earliest to register. This clone was originated from Bukit Merah Resevoir in Perak. The fruit was roundish with light green skin colour. It has sharp small thorn and not very thick skin. It has a thick flesh with yellow color and sweet-bitter in taste. I used to eat this clone every year due to its availability and medium price tag.

b. D 99
This clone was originated from Thailand and also known as "KOP KECIL". It was registered in Jun1970 with many sub-varieties ( 8 all together). The words kob means 'frog' in Thai language. Ony two out of 8 was popular in Malaysia that was Kob Kecil (1-2 kg/fruit) and Kop Besar (3-7 kg/ fruit). Th fruit was medium size with roundish shape and green skin color. It also has a sharp thorn on the skin. The flesh was yellow with medium thickness and fine texture but a little soft.

c. D123
This clone was originated also from Thailand and domesticated in Malaysia for many years. This clone was also called as " CHANEE" and registered in July 1971 with DOA. This clone has a big size fruit aand elongated in shape. The skin color was green with greyish color on the bottom part. The fruit stalk was short and bigger size compare to other clone. It has a golden yellow flesh color and taste very sweet and lemak. This clone among has the strongest durian aroma.

d. MDUR 79
e. MDUR 88
f.  D 168
g. D 169
h. D 145

Department of Agriculture trained the farmers to process durian rather than selling as fresh fruit. Certain clone suitable for processing to 'durian chips', durian sweets, durian ice cream, durian candies, durian juice and many others. For export of fresh durian a new technology introduced known as "Quick Freeze" of fresh fruit under 4 degrees celcius and exported to Australia, Japan, China and Europe market. Research and marketing strategies has to be strengtened to ensure durian clones and industry survive in Malaysia!...

Writers at durian farm in Tangkak inspect Canker Disease on D24 clones. 
Control of the disease important as it can cause dieback.

M Anem
Muar, Johor
(Frequent visit to durian farm at Tangkak)

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