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Thursday, June 24, 2010

13 Top Durian Clones in Malaysia

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) was the largest fruit tree grown in Malaysia with about 110,000 hectare in 2012. Durian was planted from traditional system to commercial system with mixed varieties or clones. Department of Agriculture identified more than 200 durian varieties/clones in Malaysia since 1934 but today only 10 clones was recommended for mass production. Durian maturity period between 5 - 7 years after planting depend on cultivars. The duration from flowering to harvesting ranged between 90 -1 20 days. Phythopthora disease is the scariest disease in durian plantation. Durian rich of Vitamin A (150 mg), Vitamin C (23.3 mg), Protein (2.7 gm), Fats (3.4 gm), Carbohydrate (27.9 gm) and Ferrous (1.9 mg). This article in "Anim Agro Technology" I would like to share my knowledge and own field experience about few popular durian clones in Malaysia. It may be the best reference for all readers to know about the most popular and top 13 durian clones in Malaysia. You may know the clones number or local names but… do you know the actual fruit? Only the experts will know the exact clones! I write this article based on my own experience as senior agronomist and discussion with many Durian Expert and able to manage farm visit to our Agriculture Station and commercial private durian farm throughout Peninsular Malaysia.

Below are the most popular clones in Malaysia:

1. D 24
This is the most popular clone in Malaysia because it was the earliest clone introduced. Every citizen in Malaysia should remember D24 as it was once the best durian clones. This clone also known asBUKIT MERAH”. This clone was originated from Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and registered by DOA on 30 Nov 1937. The fruit was medium size with round shape. The flesh was thick with yellow color and considered a high quality durian fruits. Many locals ask for D24 due to its sweetness with a little bitter taste. D24 took about 105 – 115 days from flowering to maturity period and fall. The price of D24 considered medium range and usually considered as one of the highest demands for this clones. D24 was planted throughout the country but the concentrated area was at Bentong, Pahang, Northern Part of Johor and Perak. I manage to eat every year this D24 clone due to the medium low price and easy to purchase along roadside in Tangkak and Pagoh as the largest durian producer in the nation.

2. D 99
This clone was also known locally as KOP KECIL” and my study shows that this clone was believed from Thailand. This clone was registered on 17 Jun 1970 to Dept of Agriculture Malaysia. Kop means “Frog” in Thai language and this clone has 8 other sub-cultivars. Only 2 sub-cultivars were popular in Malaysia that was Kop Kecil and Kop Besar. This clone produce an average of 2.5 kg each fruits (Kop Kecil) and up to 3-7 kg per fruit for Kop Besar. The fruit was medium size and round shape with bronze green color skin. It has a small size and sharp thorn. D99 has yellowish flesh color and very thick with medium big seed size. D99 produce less number of fruit each tree compare to other clones. I managed to get the supply of D99 from Tangkak Agriculture Station at government low price during the festive season.

3. D123
This clone also believed from Thailand and known locally as “Chanee”. It was registered on 24 July 1971. D123 has a long and big size of fruit with a green grayish skin color. The thorn was larger in size compare to other clones and at the tips was grayish color. The flesh was golden Yellow in color and produce strong aroma with medium sweet taste. Not many people grow this clone and mostly at the northern region Peninsular Malaysia. I was able to eat t his clone during my visit to Penang and Perak few times. I like the taste and the reasonable price during durian season.

4. D 145
This clone was originated from Beserah, Pahang and locally called as “DURIAN TOK BESERAH” or “DURIAN TUAN MEK” or “DURIAN HIJAU”. It was registered to DOA on 30 October 1981. The fruit shape was round and large size with medium skin thickness. Skin color was purely Green. It has a very thick yellowish flesh and very fine texture. D145 was very sweet and considered as a compact durian due to its characteristic. I like to eat this clones due to it's sweetness and their fine texture. Normally I will go to Pahang and Segamat to get this clone of D145.The price ranged between RM 5.00 - RM 8.00 per kg depend on the season.

5. D 158This clone was also known as TANGKAI PANJANG or KAN YAU”. This clone believed originated from Thailand and registered on 30 Jun 1987 to Department of Agriculture Malaysia. The fruit shape was elongated round with long stalk (up to 17 cm long). It has a light green skin color with sharp and short small thorn. D158 is one of the clones hardly to ‘crack’ the fruits. It has a thick and dark green flesh with sweet and a little bitter taste. This is the clone I seldom get the supply to enjoy the a little heard to open the fruit.

6. D 159
This clone was originated from Thailand and registered on 30 Jun 1987. Other local names for this clone were “MUN THONG”. This clone has a big size fruit up to 4 – 6 kg each. The fruit has long roundish shape with special size thorn and shape. It has a big size flesh with yellow color and taste very sweet when reach maximum maturity period (fall to the ground). This clone was identified as the best clone for making “DURIAN CHIP” using vacuum fry technology. I was managed to see a vacuum fry factory processing D159 durian at Muar recently. I visited few D159 farms at Tangkak area (Around Gunong Ledang) with FAMA officer to check the fruiting season. I managed to eat this clone during my visit to Haadyai long time ago...but nowadays local farmers at Tangkak growing this clone and easily we can get imported Mun thong at supermarket.

7. D 169
This clone was believed also from Thailand and registered on May 1989. This clone other names was “TOK LITOK” and was popular at Tanah Merah Kelantan and Nothern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. This clone has medium small fruit size (between 1.5 – 3 kg each fruit) with long roundish shape. It has a sharp long thorn with yellowish thick flesh. I don't like this clone because it was soft flesh and sticky and seldom get through it.

8. D 188This clone was registered on 30 August 1991 and considered as one of the latest released durian clone in Malaysia. This clone was originated from MARDI Jerangau, Terengganu as a result from long research done by plant breeder in MARDI between Clone D24 and D7. Other names for this clone were MDUR78 (MD stands for Mardi Durian – may study started from 1978). The fruit shape was elongated round with weighed between 1.5 – 1.8 kg. It has yellowish green skin color. D188 has thick, fine texture and sweet taste flesh and medium aroma smell. It has medium size seed with ability to crack after 70 hours from harvesting. This clone was grown in few farm at Pagoh and DOA Agriculture Station at Tangkak. I tested few times and rated as 'Good'.

9. D 189This durian clone was also from MARDI Jeranggau Terengganu as a cross between Variety D24 and variety D7. Clone D189 also known as “MDUR 79” and registered on 30 August 1991. The fruit has round shape with average weight about 1.0 – 1.6 kg per fruit. The skin was very thick and dark green color. It has a thick flesh with yellowish color and strong smell. There were normally 3 ulas or pangsa arrangement. I managed to eat this clone from Sg Udang Melaka Agriculture Station during my visit to Melaka Fruit Farm few times.

10. D 190
This durian clone was also from MARDI Jeranggau Terengganu as a cross between Variety D24 and variety D7. Clone D189 also known as “MDUR 88” and registered on 1 July 1992. The fruit has round shape with average weight about 1.0 – 1.6 kg per fruit. The skin was very thick and yellowish green color. It has a thick flesh with golden yellow color and medium strong aroma. This clone was available during MAHA Fair and HPPNK in Pahang few years ago when I able to get few pieces.

11. D 168
This clone was very popular recently due to its high demand from consumer. This clones also known as “HAJJAH ASMAH”, DURIAN MAS MUAR” or more popular as “DURIAN IOI” believed originated from Muar (My home town). It has a medium size fruit with round shape and short stalk (only about 4 cm) . The skin was grayish green color with an average weight about 1.5 kg per fruit. The special about this clone was the yellowish orange flesh color and medium thickness with a sweet-bitter taste. It priced between RM 7.00 – RM 10.00 per kg during last season. Actually my father planted 6 tree of D168 in our surrounding home in it is common for me to eat Clone D168 every year.

12. D 175This clone was also known as “UDANG MERAH” and believed to be originated from Pulau Pinang. It was registered on 4 Jun 1990. I met one of the D175 farm owner last week (Mr James) at Kg. Balik Pulau Penang and he said the current ex-farm price for Udang Merah between RM 30.00 – RM 45.00 per kilogram!… WOW WHAT A HIGH PRICE?...he said the durian lover does not bother about the price..They want just Udang Merah. This clone has yellowish Red Flesh color and I have tasted a very special characteristic in D175. The fruit weight averaged at 1.5 – 3 kg per fruit.

13. D 197
This clone was the best durian clone on demand recently. The D197 also called as “DURIAN KUNYIT” was registered on 9 December 1993 and believed to be originated from Tanah Merah District in Kelantan. It was more popular with the names of “MUSANG KING” due to its promotion by a durian farm owner in Gua Musang District few years ago. The fruits were elongated round shape with light green skin color. It has a heavy green flesh color and produce sweet-bitter taste and very thick. Last two week this clone priced at RM 20.00 – RM 25.00 per kilogram.

Durian clones are selected from various locations with specific recomendation characteristic each clones. DOA ensures the clones are the best quality to meet the consumer taste such as appearance, sweetness, color, durability, seedless and others. The non-cloned durian was planted without any preference but some of them are also good quality. Not many locals knows either so called D24 is the genuine clones when they buy roadside...the buyer has to rely and thrust the fruit seller and pay at a premium price for so claimed good clones. Knowing durian clones from Malaysia was a terrific job. Durian as “KING OF THE FRUIT” may be known as a seasonal fruit and produced about 2-3 months annually but nowadays we can get fresh durian from hypermarket any time. More study and research has to be done to promote durian industry in Malaysia. A special replanting program of non-cloned durian with the new popular durian clones should be on going activity. I believed in future there is a shortage in fresh durian supply in Malaysia due to more farmers chopping down their durian tree to oil palm vegetation. One day…. Durian is very expensive….!

M Anem

Senior Agronomist,
Tangkak Agriculture Station,

Ledang, Johor,
(Updated on 15 July 2013)

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