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Monday, April 19, 2010


SALAK (Salacca spp) is a tropical fruit found in Malaysia and Indonesia. There was two type of salak commercially grown by farmers that was Local Salak (Salacca glabresens) and Salak Indonesia (Salacca endulis). From my study, the botanical name for salak may originated from Malaysia or Indonesia since this tree ger native to this regionDepartment of Agriculture Malaysia recorded about 1,120 hectare of salak grown in Malaysia in 2009 and produce about 4,330 metric tonnes anually. Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang are three states with large of salak growing area. Kuala Krai District in Kelantan has the most area growing with Salak (329 ha), followed by Dungun District (Terengganu - 256 ha) and Tumpat District also in Kelantan (233 ha). Traditionally salak fruit collected from wild tree from the jungle nearby but nowadays there is salak farm are managed in commercial production. This article in "Anim Agro Technology" I would like to share my knowledge about an introduction of salak groeing activity in Malayisia.

Among popular names for local salak in Malaysia was Salak Raja (King Salak), Salak Belulang, Salak Nangka and Salak Kesumba. The Indonesian salak grown in Malaysia known as Salak Medan and Salak Bali. For domestic demand seems that salak Indonesia more accepted due to it's sweet taste, bigger size, crispy, lower price and continuous production through-out the year. Pollination is an important factor that determine salak yielding potential. Local salak pollination process by natural way that is wind blow and ants. For salak Indonesia assisted pollination is a must activity due to the flowering characteristic. Salak suitable under shades at more than 40-60% for matured and 70-80% on young tree and its changes by ages of the tree. Planting distance recommendation at 6 meter x 3 meter with 181 trees /ha plant density. Gliricidia tree commonly used a shade tree at initial stage. Clay loam soil is the most suitable for salak provided there is good drainage system. Salak required more organic fertilizer and NPK 15:15:15 at vegetative and additional 12:12:17:2 on reproductive stage.

Sources of planting material is the most critical in salak growing activities. Tree from Salak seeds will create unbalance between male and female tree in the farms and uneven fruit size. Local study shown that planting salak from seed resulted 50% as female tree. There is study to use the best other method in reproduction technology for salak. The use of salak suckers is the best way of growing salak. Every matured salak tree able to produce between 2-10 suckers. There is technology to increase salak suckers to 20-30 by culling the main trunk. Pruning is an important activities in salak farming. There is few steps in pruning activity from removing unwanted leaves/ trunk for better aeration and removing suckers. Proper pruning system will allow the farmers to work in the farm and work between the sharp salak thorn. Pruning suitable time just after harvesting season. From my observation in Tangkak Farm in Muar, salak will start producing fruit 3 years after planting. The yield increase gradually from 6 - 9 kg/tree or estimated 1,250 kg / ha at initial stage. It reach to 2,800 kg/ha when reach maturity period. Ex farm Price at RM4.00/kg will create and income about RM 9,600 to RM 14,400 annually.


M Anem
Senior Agronomist,
Serdang Agriculture Station,
Serdang, Selangor,
(Updated on 25 Febuary 2014)

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