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Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Potential Yield- Industrial Crop

 Rubber plantation in Muar District, Johor by smallholders.

Do you know Potential Yield for Industrial Crop?
Potential yield are the terminology used as an indicator how much yield produced from one hectare or crop in different age.

Rubber (Hevea brazilliensis muell) is a major commodity since independence. More than 450,000 hectare of rubber plantation in Malaysia mostly clone rubber. Planting distance for rubber recommended were 5m x 5m with about 440 tree /ha. According to RISDA the potential yield of clonal rubber tree was 0.9 mt/ha at the age 8-9 years and 1.5 mt/ha for 14-15 years old. The latex production increase to 1.2 mt/ha at the age of 24-25 years old. 

Oil Palm (Elaeis guinensis) is the largest industrial crop grown in Malaysia by Estate Sector, Government Linked Company and Smallholders. Recommended planting distance was 9m x 9m giving about 136 tree/ha. Most operators sell their fruit bunches to selected nearby palm oil factory to ensure high oil quality. In Malaysia recorded the potential yield of oil palm was 7 mt/ha (3-4 years old) increase to 18 mt/ha (6-7 years old), 24 mt/ha (10-11 years old) and about 23 mt/ha (14-15 years old tree). After 20 years normally the farmers start to replant new crop.

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a traditional industrial crop since long time before. Most coconut area located at coastal area in Peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Selangor and Johore coastal area) , Sarawak and Sabah. Planting distance for new coconut (MATAG Variety) is 8.2m x 8.2 m giving at 156 trees/ha. Potential yield for MATAG was 4.55 mt/ha (5-6 years old), 16.6 mt/ha (9-11 years old) and 22 mt/ha (more 18 years old). 
Fragrant Coconut produced about 23.5 mt/ha (6-7 years old) and 37.5 mt/ha (above 8 years). Kelapa Pandan planting distance was 6m x 6m giving 277 trees /ha.
Malaysian Tall Coconut (Traditional Local Coconut) grown by smallholders at 12m x 6m planting distance for about 138 trees/ha. Potential yield also low about 7 mt/ha (6-7 years old) up to 8 mt/ha (10-11 years) and only 9 mt/ha (above 12 years).

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) ia a popular drink crop late 8o's in Malaysia. It was grown by estate sector and smallholders but not many in recent years. Planting distance for cocoa was 3m x 3m giving about 790 trees/ha. Potential yield for cocoa 1.1 mt/ha (3-4 years), 2.6 mt/ha (5-7 years), 3.75 mt/ha (8-9 years) and 4.3 mt/ha (more 10 years old).

Coffee (Coffea robusta) grown at a distance 3m x 3m giving 1,110 trees/ha. Latest variety of coffee in Malaysia was MKL Variety. Coffee are grown by smallholders under coconut or orchards. The Liberica coffee planted in Malaysia since colonial but the Arabica Variety planted at the Notherern Region due to climate suitability. Potential yield of coffee in Malaysia recorded at 3.7 mt/ha (3-4 years old), 12 mt/ha (6-7 years), 15 mt/ha (8-9 years) and 13 mt/ha (more 18 years).

Pepper (Piper nigrum) was mostly grown in fertile area Sarawak by smallholders. Other pepper growing area was in Johore and Sabah. Planting distance for pepper was 8.2 m x 8.2 m giving 156 tree/ha. Most pepper was grown with Wooden post or recently using Gliricidia tree (symbiosis). Potential pepper yield in Malaysia about 2.2 mt/ha (3-4 years) to 4.4 mt/ha (5-9 years) and 2.2 mt/ha (10-12 years). 


M Anem
DOA Sarawak
Jalan Simpang Tiga,
Kuching, Sarawak,

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