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Thursday, January 28, 2010

Growing Long Bean

A longbean farmers at Kg Parit 3 Sagil, Ledang, Johor collect about 18.5 mt last week of longbean from 1 hectare.

Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis spp) from Leguminaceae family is a creeping fruity vegetables. It was grown as commercial commodities for local and export market. It is a popular vegetables consumed in Malaysia as daily dishes. Long consumed as Ulam or fried or steamed depending on cooking preference. Longbean believed to be originated from India and it was grown in Asia, East Africa and Central America on Tropical climate with temperature from 20-30 Celsius. Longbean need rainfall pattern between 138-168 mm monthly with pH level on soil between 5.5 to 6.8. I manage to visit many long bean farm during my tenure as Mersing, Segamat and Muar District Agriculture Officer for more than 13 years.

In Malaysia , as my observation for Longbean was commercially grown in Johore, Perak and Pahang. In 2006 about 3,319 hectare of longbean was grown (Production 45,924 mt) decrease to only 2,820 ha (Production about 38,360 mt) in 2009. According to DOA statistic report, Bentong District in Pahang grow the largest longbean in 2009 (257 ha) followed by Muar Johor (185 ha) and Kuantan Pahang (129 ha) respectively. Recently KNYS No 398 variety was popular in Muar District.

Land preparation started 2 weeks before planting with ploughing activity and preparation of irrigation and drainage system. Liming 2.5 mt /ha recommended to increase to pH 5-7. Bed preparation with 1.2m x 25 cm height layered with plastic silvershine and basic manuring with organic manure about 3 - 5 mt /ha. Requirement of Silvershine Plastic about 20 unit/ha and first manuring program with NPK 15:15:15 for about 700 kg/ha before planting. Selected seed (KNY398) direct sowing on the bed (2 seed/hole) and seed requirement about 8 kg/ha. Planting distance 60 cm x 40 cm and 10 days later start preparing the creeping posts. The support system (Trellis) erected using wood post 2.5 m height and 6 cm size connected each other with dawai (Dawai no 10) and strengthened each post at the end.

Weed control using Glufosinate ammonium or manual weeding. Turn on sprinkler system from day 1 to harvesting period according to weather condition. Second manuring program with NPK 12:12:17:2 about 250 kg/ha or 12 gram/tree applied after 28 days. Trird manuring program 49 days later about the similar quantity with NPK 12:12:17:2. Harvesting started 45 days after planting to approximately 70 days (25 days harvesting period). Among popular pests attacked longbeans were Aphids (Aphis craccivora), Bean Fly (Melanagrommyza phaseoli), Pod Borer (Marucca testutalis), Pod Borer (Euchrysops cnejus) and Thrips (Thrips spp). Use pesticide and manual (sanitation approach) to control pests attack. Recommended insecticides that sprayed such as Diaznon, Dimehhoate, Deltramethrin, Diafenthiuron and cypermethrin. Diseases for longbean are Antracnose (Collectotricum lindemuthianum) that attacked leaf and fruit and controlled with carbendezim or copper oxychloride. Other disease was Leaf spot (Cercospora canecens), Rust (Uromyces appendiculates) , Leaf mozaic (Mozaic virus) and Root Rot (Rhizoctonia solani).

Longbean potential yield between 14 - 16 mt per hectare. Experience at Muar District the average production about 15 mt per hectare. With ex-farm price for RM 0.80/kg the total gross farm income is RM 12,000.00 per hectare. From record keeping activities seems that total cost of production recorded at RM 7,687.90/ha and the net profit about RM 4,312.10/ha. Cost of production per kilogram of longbeans in Muar District is RM 0.51 and the farmers will get back RM 1.56 for every RM 1.00 spent on longbean growing.




M Anem

DOA Muar

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