Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Nama Lain TEMBIKAI

Tembikai merah di Endau, Mersing, Johor. 

TEMBIKAI (Citrullus lunatus) adalah bua-buahan popular diseluroh dunia dari keluarga Cucurbitaceae. Tumbuhan ini mempunyai sebanyak 31 spesis dengan sebahagian besar dari C. lunatus dan sebahagian lagi C. vulgaris. Penanaman tembikai  di Malaysia adalah untuk menghasilkan buah segar dan pasaran ekspot serta domestik. Penanaman tembikai di Malaysia seluas 11,750 hektar pada tahun 2010 dengan pengeluaran sebanyak 238,050 metrik tan. Kawasan utama tanaman tembikai di Malaysia adalah di Daerah Rompin, Pahang (2,543 ha), Daerah Kluang , Johor (1,119 ha) dan Daerah Mersing, Johor (828 hektar).

Nama-nama lain bagi tembikai mengikut bahasa tempatan seperti berikut :
Buah tembikar segar.

NAMA BOTANI: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai (Vulgaris Group)

SYNONYM(S) :
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus,
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai subsp. vulgaris (Schrad.) Fursa var. vulgaris,
Citrullus edulis Spach.

ENGLISH : Common watermelon, Cultivated watermelon.

AFRIKAANS : Waatlemoen.

ARABIC : بَطِّيخ Battikh (baṭṭīḫ), بطيخ أحمر Battikh ahmar (red-fleshed), Bateekh, Betteakh (Egypt).

ARMENIAN : Belum ada maklumat.

ASSAMESE : Tiada maklumat

BEMBA : Tiada maklumat terkini.

BENGALI : তরমুজ Taramuj, Tormuj.

BULGARIAN : Диня Dinia.

BURMESE : Masih tiada maklumat.

CATALAN : Sindriera.

CHINESE : Xi gua ( Cantonese Si koa), Shi yong xi gua, Choei koa, Ts'ing teng koa, Han koa, Hia koa.

CROATIAN : Lubenica.

CZECH : Cukrový meloun, Lubenice meloun, Lubenice obecná, Meloun vodní, Vodní meloun.

DANISH : Vandmelon.

DUTCH : Watermeloen.

ENGLISH : Watermelon, Water melon.

ESTONIAN : Arbuus, Vesimelon.

FINNISH : Vesimeloni, Arpuusi.

FRENCH : Melon d'eau, Pastèque.

GERMAN: Wassemelone (East Germany), Wassermelone (Switzerland) , Gewöhnliche Wassermelone, Wasserzitrulle, Wasser-melone.

GREEK : Kαρπούζι Karpusi, Karpouzia (Cyprus).

GUJARATI : ઇંદ્રક Indrak, તરબૂચ Tarabuucha.

HEBREW : אבטיח Avatiach, Avatiach pashut.

HINDI : Kharbuza ( kharmuja), तरबूज Tarabūja, तरबूज़
Tarabuuza (Tarbooz, Tarbuj, Tarbuz, Tarmuj).

HUNGARIAN : Görögdinnye.

ICELANDIC : Vatnsmelóna.

ITALIAN : Anguria, Cocomero (Tuscany), Melone d'acqua, Pastecca.

JAPANESE : Suika, Suika, Shokuyou suika (Shokuyô suika), Shokuyou suika, Shokuyou suika.

KANNADA : Kallangadi balli.

KHMER : 'öö'w llök.

KIKUYU : Awaiting feedback.

KOREAN : 수박 Su bak (Soo bahk).

LAOTIAN : Môô, Tèèng môô.

LITHUANIAN : Arbūzas, Tikrasis arbūzas.

MACEDONIAN : Lubenica.

MALAY : Tembikai, Mendikai, Pokok tembikai, Semangka (Indonesia), Cimangko (Indonesia), Watesan (Java).

MALAYALAM : തണ്ണീര് മത്തന് , തണ്ണീര് മത്തന് .

MARATHI : टरबूज Tarabuuja.

NEPALESE : तरबूजा Tarabuujaa (Tarbuja).

NORWEGIAN : Vannmelon.

PERSIAN : هندوانه Hinduwāna, تربوز Tarbuz, خربوزه Xarbuza, Raqqi ?

POLISH : Arbuz, Kawon.

PORTUGUESE : Melancia, Melância.

PUNJABI : ਤਰਬੂਜ Tarabuuja.

ROMANIAN : Harbuz, Lubeniţă, Pepene verde.

RUSSIAN : Арбуз Arbuz, Арбуз обыкновенный Arbuz obyknovennyj, Arbuz stolovyj.

SANSKRIT : खर्बूज Kharabūja, तरम्बुज Tarambuja

SERBIAN : Лубеница Lubenitsa.

SINHALESE : Awaiting feedback.

SLOVAKIAN : Dyňa červená, Vodový melón.

SLOVENIAN : Lubenice.

SPANISH : Sandía (Spain), Melón de agua (Cuba), Albudeca (?).

SUNDANESE : Samangka.

SWAHILI : Mtango, Mtikiti.

SWEDISH : Vattenmelon.

TAGALOG : Pakwan.

TAMIL : பலம் Palam, வத்தாக்கு Vattākku.

TELUGU : పుచ్చ , పుచ్చకాయ, Eriputccha.

THAI : Taeng chin (Peninsular Thailand), แตงโม Taeng moh (Central Thailand), Matao (Northern Thailand).

TURKISH : Karpuz.

UKRAINIAN : Кавун Kavun.

URDU : تربوجا .

VIETNAMESE : Dưa hấu (pref. name), Dưa hấu ruột đỏ (red-fleshed), Dưa hấu ruột vàng (Yellow-fleshed).

Potensi tanaman tembikai di Malaysia adalah sangat baik kerana boleh di tanam sepanjang tahun dengan teknologi baru dan benih hibrid yang berkualiti. Benih tembikai hampir 100% adalah dimpot dari beberapa negara seperti Taiwan, China dan Thailand. Kawasan penanaman tembikai di Malaysia biasanya tidak ditumpukan pada kawasan tetap tetapi beubah-ubah dikawasan baru atau dijalankan penggiliran tanaman. Antara varieti yang popular seperti New Dragon 117 , Semangka 144, New Grand Baby, Sky Light , Diana, China Boy , Pearl dan King Black.  

By,
M Anem
Muar
Johor
Malaysia

Nama lain : BETIK


Betik (Carica papaya L) merupakan sejenis buah-buahan tropika dari keluarga Caricaceae. Tumbuhan betik mempunyai 18 spesis dimana hanya 5 spesis yang boleh di komersilkan untuk dimakan iaitu Carica papaya, Carica chilensis, Carica goudotiana, Carica monoica dan Carica pubescens. Lain-lain spesis adalah dalam bentuk betik liar atau pun untuk ornamental sahaja. Tumbuhan ini dipercayai berasal dari Amerika Tengah dan di sebarkan keseluroh dunia semanjak beratus-ratus tahun dahulu.  Pengeluar betik utama dunia adalah Brazil (6 juta mt setahun) diikuti dengan India (2.5 juta mt setahun ) dan Nigeria (0.985 juta mt setahun).  Malaysia menanam seluas 3,148 hektar pada tahun 2010 dengan pengeluaran sebanyak 49,760 metrik tan. Kawasan utama tanaman betik di Malaysia adalah di Rompin, Pahang (688 ha), di Daerah Padang Terap, Kedah (295 ha) dan di Daerah Muar, Johor (182 ha).

Berikut adalah nama-nama lain bagi tanaman betik mengikut nama tempatan:


NAMA BOTANI BETIK : Carica papaya L.

SYNONYM(S) :
Carica hermaphrodita Blanco,
Carica Mamaja Vellero ,
Carica vulgaris DC.,
Papaya carica Gaertner,
Papaya papaya Karsten,
Papaya sativa Tussac,
Papaya vulgaris A. DC.


ARABIC : بابايا

BENGALI : পেঁপে.

BURMESE : Thimbaw.

CHINESE : 番木瓜 Fan mu gua.

CZECH : Papája.

DANISH : Melontræ, Papaya.

DUTCH : Meloenboom, Papaja, Papajaboom.

ENGLISH : Pawpaw, Papaya.

ESTONIAN : Harilik papaia, Papaia .

FRENCH : Papaye (fruit), Papayer (tree).

GERMAN : Melonenbaum, Papaya, Papayabaum.

GREEK : Παπάγια.

HEBREW : פפאיה .

HINDI : पपीता Papiitaa.

JAPANESE : パパイア Papaia, ぱぱいあ Papaia, パパイヤ Papaiya, ぱぱいや Papaiya, パパヤ Papaya, ポポー Popoo.

KHMER : Ihong, Doeum lahong.

LAOTIAN : Houng.

KOREAN : 파파야 Pa pa ya.

MALAY : Betek, Betik, Gedang (Indonesia), Kates (Indonesian), Ketalah, Papaya (Indonesia).

MALAYALAM : പപ്പായ

POLISH : Melonowiec właściwy, Papaja.

PORTUGUESE : Ababaia, Mamão (Brazil), Papaia, Fruto do Mamoeiro, Papaeira.

RUSSIAN : Папая Papaia.

SPANISH : Lechosa, Lechoso (Colombia, Venezuela), Lechoza (Venezuela), Mamón (Argentina), Melón de Árbol, Melón Zapote (Mexico), Papaya, Papayero, Papayo.

TAGALOG : Kapaya, Lapaya, Papaya.

TAMIL : பப்பாளி Pappali.

TELUGU : బొప్పాయి.

THAI : Loko, มะละกอ Malako, Malakor, Ma kuai thet, Sa kui se.


URDU : Papiitaa.

VIETNAMESE : Đu đủ.

Antara kultivar betik yang popular di tanam di Malaysia adalah Betik Eksotika 1, Eksotik 2, Piola, Betik Sekaki, Betik Subang dan Betik Solo. Kebanyakan tanaman betik di Malaysia adalah untuk pasaran domestik dan ekspot. Industri tanaman betik di Malaysia pernah menghadapi masaalah penyakit Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) dan 'Papaya Dieback' dan dikawal dengan serious. Permintaan betik terus meninfkat setiap tahun dan wajar agar tanaman ini diberikan perhatian sewajarnya dari semua pihak untuk memajukan tanaman betik.

Pemeriksaan betik di tangkak, Johor
By,
M Anem
Putrajaya
Malaysia

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Nama lain MANGGA


Mangga (Mangifera indica L.) merupakan sejenis buah-buahan yang popular di dunia dari Keluarga Anacardiaceae. Tumbuhan ini yang ditanam semenjak 4,000 tahun dulu dipercayai berasal dari kawasan Indo-Myanmar dan kini ditanam di seluroh dunia. Pengeluaran mangga dudunia sekitar 30.9 juta metrik tan pada 2010 dengan India sebagai pengeluar utama diikuti dengan Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Israel dan USA. Di Asia mangga di hasilkan oleh India, Pakistan, Thailand dan Indonesia. Keluasan tanaman mangga di Malaysia adalah 9,790 hektar dengan pengeluaran 25,510 metrik tan pada tahun 2010.

Berikut adalah nama-nama lain bagi Mangga dalam bahasa mereka:

  

NAMA BOTANI : Mangifera indica L.

SYNONYM(S) : Mangifera domestica Gaertn.

ARABIC : مانجا Manja, Mangô.

ASSAMESE : Ghariyam.

BENGALI : Aama (Aam).

BURMESE : Thayeq dhì (Tharyetthi), Thayeq (Thayet).

CHINESE : Mang guo, Mang guo.

CZECH : Mangovník indický.

DANISH : Mango, Mangotræ.

DUTCH : Manga, Mangga, Manja, Mangoestanboom, Mangostanboom.

ENGLISH : Indian mango, Mango, Mango tree , Mango-tree.

FINNISH : Mango, Mangopuu.

FRENCH : Mangue, Manguier.

GERMAN : Indischer Mangobaum, Mango , Mangofrucht, Mangobaum,
Mangopalme.

GREEK : Μάγκο Magko, Μάνγκο Mangko.

HAUSA : Mangoro (Nigeria).

HEBREW : .

HINDI : Aam.

ITALIAN : Mango (fruit), Mango (tree).

JAPANESE : Mangoo, Mangou.

KHMER : Svaay.

KOREAN : Mang ko.

LAOTIAN : Mak mouang, Mwàngx.

MALAY : Ampelam, Mangga, Mangga (Indonesia), Mempelam.

NEPALESE : Aanpa, Amacura.

NORWEGIAN : Mango.

PERSIAN : انبه

POLISH : Mango indyjskie.

PORTUGUESE : Manga, Mangueira.

RUSSIAN : Манго Mango.

SINHALESE : Etamba.

SLOVAKIAN : Mangovník indický.

SPANISH : Mango (fruit), Mango (tree).

SWAHILI : Mwembe.

SWEDISH : Mango, Mango-arter.

TAGALOG : Mangang kalabau, Mangga.

TELUGU : Amramu.

THAI : Mamuang (Ma muang, Mak mouang).

URDU : Aam, Amba.

VISAYAN : Mangga.

VIETNAMESE : Xoài.


Antara beberapa jenis mangga yang popular di Malaysia adalah seperti Harumanis, Melaka Delight (Chok Anan), Golek, Nam Dok Mai, Mun Diem Kaw dan MAHA 65 (Rujuk artikel saya Klon mangga di Malaysia). Industri tanaman mangga di Malaysia mempunyai potensi yang baik untuk pasaran domestik dan juga ekspot.

By,
M Anem
Jalan Istana, Air Keroh,
Melaka
Malaysia

Nama lain DURIAN


Durian (Durio zibethinus L.) merupakan sejenis tanaman buah-buahan tropika yang juga di gelar sebagai 'King of the Fruit' di Malaysia iaitu tumbuhan dari keluarga Bombacaceae.  Pengeluar utama durian didunia adalah Thailand diikuti dengan Malaysia dan Indonesia yang diekspot ke beberapa negara dalam bentuk buah segar, sejuk beku atau isi buah durian. Kajian saya mendapati terdapat lebih dari 200 jenis kultivar durian tetapi hanya kira-kira 60-80 kultivar sahaja yang di komersilkan. Tanaman Durian di Malaysia adalah seluas 104,655 hektar pada tahun 2010 dengan mengeluarkan hasil sebanyak 300,470 metrik tan. Kawasan utama tanaman durian di Malaysia adalah di Daerah Muar Johor (7,048 hektar) diikuti Daerah Segamat, Johor (6,741 hektar) dan Daerah Kuala Kerai Kelantan (5,365 hektar). Saya pernah bertugas sebagai AO Daerah Muar dan AO Segamat selama 9 tahun. Durian cuma terkenal dikalangan orang Asia Tenggara sahaja dan tidak banyak didapati di negara-negara lain seperti tanaman pisang. Bagaimana pun nama-nama lain durian dalam bahasa lain seperti berikut:


Nama Botani Durian : Durio zibethinus L.

SYNONYM(S) :
Durio zibethinus Murr.,
Durio foetida Thunb.,
Durio acuminatissima Merr.

CHINESE : Liu lian.

DUTCH : Doerian, Stinkvrucht.

ENGLISH : Civet-cat fruit tree, Civet fruit, Common durian, Edible durian, Durian.

GERMAN : Durianbaum, Stinkfrucht, Zibetbaum.

INDONESIA : Duren (Jawa)

JAPANESE : Durian.

KOREAN : Du ri an.

MALAY : Durian (Malaysia).

PORTUGUESE : Durião.

SPANISH : Durión.

TAGALOG : Durian.

THAI : Thurian.

Pada masa ini tanaman durian merupakan komoditi yang agak kurang di minati oleh petani kerana pulangan yang bermusim dan rendah jika ianya  dibandingkan dengan tanaman Kelapa Sawit. Ramai petani di Daerah Muar dan Segamat yang telah menukar tanaman durian kepada Kelapa Sawit, Getah atau Sayur-sayuran daripada pemerhatian yang saya jalankan. Laluan pasaran buah durian telah ada untuk di ekspot ke beberapa negara seperti China, Jepun, Hong Kong, Australia dan beberapa negara lagi.

By,
M Anem
Muar
Johor
Malaysia

Nama Lain PISANG

Tanaman Pisang (Musa spp) merupakan sejenis tanaman dari keluarga Musaceae buah-buahan yang sangat popular di seluroh dunia. Bekalan pisang dunia 53% datangnya dari Asia dengan India merupakan pengeluar nombor satu dunia membekalkan sebanyak 24% bekalan pisang atau  sebanyak 70.89 juta metrik tan pada 2009. Ini diikuti dengan  Brazil, Equador, China, Filipina, Indonesia dan Thailand. Kajian saya daripada beberapa sumber mendapati tumbuhan pisang dari keluarga Musaceae ini mempunyai 235 spesis diseluroh dunia daripada spesis yang boleh dimakan sehinggalah spesis yang tidak boleh dimakan (Ornamental tree). Keluasan tanaman pisang di Malaysia adalah seluas 29,790 hektar pada tahun 2010 dengan pengeluaran sebanyak 294,395 metrik tan yang bernilai RM 240.5 juta. 

Nama-nama lain bagi Tanaman Pisang (Musa spp) diseluroh dunia seperti berikut: 


Nama Botani : Musa spp.

ARABIC : Maouz, Maozeh (Lebanese), Mauz, Mazw, Moaz, Mouz, موز Moz (Egypt).

ARMENIAN : ադամաթուզ Adamat'uz, բանան.

ASSAMESE : কলা Kala.

BENGALI : কলা Kala.

BURMESE : (nghak-pyau:) Hnget pyaw / Nget pyaw, Nget pyo thee, Nga pyaw thee, Nga pyaw phoo (flower).

CATALAN : Bananer.

CHINESE : Jiao (Tsiu, Chiu), Shang chao fua (? flower).

CZECH : Banánovník.

DANISH : Banan, Bananer, Bananbusk (plant), Banantræ (plant).

DUTCH : Banaan, Bananen, Banaanboom (plant), Banaanplant, Bananeplant.

ENGLISH : Banana, Banana tree, Banana shrub.

FINNISH : Banaanit, Banaanirata, Banaanikasvi (plant).

FRENCH : Banane, Bananes, Bananier (plant), Figue (ingredient, dried fruit - Caribbean-Sea islands).

GERMAN : Banane, Bananen, Bananenpisang, Bananenstaude (plant).

GREEK : Μπανάνα.

GUJARATI : કેળાં, કેળું

HAUSA : Ayaba.

HEBREW : בננות ,Vananah בַּנָּנָה

HINDI : कदली Kadali, केले Kela (fruit), केले का पेड़ Kela kaa per (plant), केला Kelaa (fruit), केला का फूल Kelaa kaa phuul (Kelaa ka fool / Kere kafool) (flower), पापड़ा Paapraa .

ICELANDIC : Banani.

ITALIAN : Banana, Banane, Banano (plant).

JAPANESE : バナナ Banana, バナナの木 Banana no ki (plant), Banana no tsubomi (flower), バショウ Bashou.

KANNADA : ಕದಳಿ Kadali, ಬಾಳೆ Baale (balay), ಬಾಳೇಹಣ್ಣು Baalehannu (Balayhanu), ಬಾಳೆಹಣ್ಣು. , ಬಳೆ ಕಾಯಿ bale kaayi.

KHMER : Cheek nam'vaa, Chec.

KOREAN : 바나나 Panana. vaazha

LAOTIAN : ໝາກກ້ວຍ Mak guy, Kwàyz, Kok khone.

MALAGASY : Akondro.

MALAY : Pisang, Getang (Indonesia), Jantung pisang (flower), Djantoong (Indonesia).

MALAYALAM : മഊചം Maoocham (Maaucam), വാഴ Vaazha, , വാഴപ്പഴം Vaazhappazham.

MARATHI : वेलची Velachi.

NEPALESE : कदली Kadalii.

POLISH : Drzewo bananowe, Bananowca, Bananowiec.

PORTUGUESE : Banana, Bananas, Bananeira (plant).

RUSSIAN : банан Banan.

SERBIAN : бана́на.

SINHALESE : Kehel, Kehel mal.

SLOVAKIAN : Bananovec.

SLOVENIAN : Banánovník.

SPANISH : Banana, Platano, Plátanos, Cambur (plant), Banano (plant), Platanero (plant).

SWAHILI : Ndizi, Maso.

SWEDISH : Bananer.

TAGALOG : Saging (Fruit), Puso (flower), Punong saging (plant).

TAMIL : வாழை தண்டு (stem), வாழை Vaazhai, வாழைபூ Vaazhaipoo (flower), வாழை மரம் (plant), வாழைப்பழம், Vazhei.

TELUGU : అరటి Arati, అరటిపండు Artipandu, కదళ Kadala.

THAI : กล้วย Kluai / Kluay / Klue / Kluey / Gluai / Glooway / Gkloo ay, Dok kluai (flower), Hua blee (flower).

TURKISH : Muz.

URDU : کيلا Kelaa (Keyla), كيلا كا پهول Kelaa kaa phuul (flower), کيلا Kelaa, موز Mauz.

VIETNAMESE : Hoa chuối (flower), Bắp chuối (flower), Cây chuối (leaf), Quả chuối (fruit).

YORUBA : Ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀, Ogede.


Dengan ini para pembaca mampu menyebut nama-nama pisang jika mahu mengembara ketempat yang ada pisang. Maklumat ini juga akan membantu kita untuk mengetahui nama-nama pisang di tempat lain.

By,
M Anem
Putrajaya
Malaysia.

Nama lain bagi Kelapa Sawit


Ladang Kelapa Sawit di Johor
Tanaman Kelapa Sawit merupakan tanaman utama di tanam di Malaysia dengan jumlah seluas 4.691 juta hektar pada tahun 2009. Seluas 2.489 juta hektar di tanam di Semenanjung Malaysia, 1.361 juta hektar di Sabah dan 0.339 juta hektar di sarawak dengan menghasilkan sebanyak 17,564,937 metrik tan minyak sawit mentah (CPO). Tahukah anda nama lain yang di gunakan untuk Kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis) dari keluarga Palmae ini?

 
Nama Botani : Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
SYNONYM(S) : Elaeis melanococca Gaertn.

ARABIC : Nakhlet ez zayt.


BURMESE : Si htan, Si ohn.

CHINESE : You zong.

DANISH : Oliepalme.

ENGLISH : African oil palm, Macaw fat, Oil palm, Palm kernel oil.

FINNISH : Öljypalmu.

FRENCH : Palmier à huile, Palmier à huile d'Afrique.

GERMAN : Afrikanische Ölpalme, Ölpalme.

ITALIAN : Palma avoira, Palma da olio, Palma oleaginosa africana.

JAPANESE : Abura yashi.

MALAY : Kelapa sawit, Kelapa sawit Bali.

PORTUGUESE : Caiaué (Brazil), Dendenzeiro, Palmera dendém.

RUSSIAN : Gvineiskaia, Maslichnaia pal'ma, Pal'ma maslichnaia.

SPANISH : Corojo de Guinea, Palma africana, Palma oleaginosa africana, Palmera de aceite.

SWAHILI : Mchikichi, Miwesi, Mjenga.

SWEDISH : Oljepalm.

THAI : Paam nam man.

VIETNAMESE : dudu


Buah Kelapa sawit yang matang
By,
M Anem
Melaka
Malaysia

NTF Technology For Salad


What is Nutrient Thin Film Technology?




Salad (Latuca sativa) under Asteraceae family is ready for market at MAFC Farm Cameroon Highland. The fresh produce under Nutrient Thin Film Technology or NTF system recently introduced in Malaysia for commercial salad production. Other popular variety grown in Malaysia are Butter Head, Chinese Lettuce, Crisphead, Looseleaf, Romanine and Summer Crisp.




Wrapped salad with this plastic film after the grading process in the farm. The outer leaves was removed and than spray with clean treated water to retain freshness. It must arrive to the wholesale market as soon as possible. The ex-farm price about RM 3.00 - RM 5.00 /head depend on the size, appearance, uniformity, color and season. Mostly eaten as raw salad, Fast Food Industry for Burger (Mc Donald, KFC and A&W) in major big city.
Foreign workers at the harvesting activity. The right timing for harvest are based on the days after sowing in the nursery. Most of the produce are for fresh production. Most salad seed in Malaysia are imported fr on Europe and China.



The Netted Rain Shelter Structure protect the crop from rain and the attack from pests and diseases. The control environment allows most salad grown in Cameroon Highland suitable to grow throughout the year either dry of wet season.



The Nutrient Thin Film Technology (NTF) is a control system which is compatible to all irrigation and fertigation system. In this system a thin film of nutrient solution flows through plastic lined channels, which contain plant roots. The walls of the channel are flexible and this permits them to be drawn together around the base of each plant, excluding light and preventing evaporation. Nutrient solution is pumped to the higher end of each chamber and flows by gravity past the plants roots to catchment, the pipes and a sump. The solution is monitored for replenishment of salts and water before it is recycled. Capillary material in the channel prevent young plants from dying out and the roots soon grow into a tangled mat.
The main advantage of NFT system is that it requires much less nutrient solution. It is there fore easier to heat the solution during winter to obtain optimum temperature for root growth and to cool it during hot summers in arid and tropical regions, thereby avoiding the bolting of lettuce and other undesirable plant responses.


The tray of NTF arranged parallel about 2.5 feet above the ground for suitable in planting, crop managements and harvesting activity. Each hole able to grow single plants.

The NTF technology was suitable for fertigation under the Greenhouse System. The costs depends on the material used in this system. For further inquiry of this system , please visits the website related to this technology. There are many farmers in Cameroon Highland use this technology for salads production. Many outside lowland farmers may be never knows about this technology.

By,
M Anem
Cameroon highland,
Pahang, Malaysia.

Monday, June 27, 2011

Talk about Sustainable Agriculture

The participants from 10 ASEAN Country
I was asked by many participants from the 6th ASEAN-JICA International Tropical Fruit Industry Training Course recently about Sustainable Agriculture. I explain to them that the Sustainable Agriculture integrates three main goals that was Environmental Health, Economic Profitability and Social and Economic Equity. In  my explanation further I asks them to continue reading my blog that is animhosnan.blogspot.com or animagro.blogspot.com.  There are a variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed to these goals of sustainable agriculture. People in many different capacities and from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. This article I share my little opinion on sustainable agriculture related to Malaysia.


As a start I can say that the word 'Sustainability' rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future. Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or enhancing this vital resource base for the long term. In Malaysia the opening of new area to grow oil palm and rubber are sustainable if the basic practice followed such as the terracing techniques, planting of cover crops and proper drainage and irrigation system. The zero-burning concept by falling the old tree and processed as composting activity was the latest technology of sustainable agriculture in oil palm industry. 


We have to know a systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. The system is envisioned in its broadest sense from the individual farm to the local ecosystem and to communities affected by this farming system both locally and globally. An emphasis on the system allows a larger and more thorough view of the consequences of farming practices on both human communities and the environment. A systems approach gives us the tools to explore the interconnections between farming and other aspects of our environment. For example many training has to be conducted for vegetable growers of how to apply Integrated Pest Management Concepts (IPM) with the reduction of the chemical usage to control pests and diseases in their Good Agriculture Practice activity. Farmers in Cameroon Highland consumed more organic matters in their farming activity compare to the huge application of chemical fertilizer.A systems approach also implies interdisciplinary efforts in research and education. This requires not only the input of researchers from various disciplines, but also farmers, farm-workers  consumers, policymakers and others.


Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a long process and not an easy jobs. For the farmers the transition to sustainable agriculture normally requires a series of small and realistic steps. Extension Agriculture Officers, Political Leaders, Growers Association and  NGO must combined to clarify to the community the importance of Sustainable Agriculture. Family economics and personal goals influence how fast or how far participants can go in the transition. It is important to realize that each small decision can make a difference and contribute to advancing the entire system further on the "sustainable agriculture continuum." The key to moving forward is the will to take the next step. The various level of community has to understand the whole concept about sustainable agriculture and what is their role within the system.


It is important to point out that reaching toward the goal of sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the system. They include active farmers, laborers, policymakers, researchers, retailers, and consumers. That mean the whole Crop-Chain system must involved in the system. Each group has its own part to play and its own unique contribution to make to strengthen the sustainable agriculture community. Farmers usually the most front-liners to be blame in this system since they are the ultimate group of total involvement in the farming activity if any problem arises about this issue. The policy maker must understand the whole concept about sustainable agriculture to prepare a conducive regulation related to it. In Malaysia this issue considered as medium and 'OK' stage regarding the issue of sustainable agriculture from the views of policy maker, the related departments, NGO's, Farmers and public. Campaign and explanation continuously conducted for the awareness of sustainable agriculture at various level in Malaysia.  


I would like to remind that this article or document considers specific strategies for realizing these broad themes or goals. The strategies are grouped according to three separate though related areas of concern: Farming and Natural Resources, Plant and Animal Production Practices, and the Economic, Social and Political Context. They represent a range of potential ideas for individuals committed to interpreting the vision of sustainable agriculture within their own circumstances. The more awareness among community in a country is the better position for that nation in the future of sustainable agriculture for the next generation.


By,
M Anem
Jalan Istana
Air Keroh, Melaka,
Malaysia
(On Holiday this monday) 

About Hybrid Seeds

This article I would like to share my knowledge about Hybrid seeds from my lecturer during my study in Plant Breeding Topics in University. Firstly he said that Malaysia is in early stage of producing our own hybrid seeds for selected crops. In the opening speech he said that the history of Hybrid Seeds began with maize started in the 1920s and it became extended to vegetables and flowers and more recently in rice and some forage crops. He said in the later part he will touch about Genetically Modified Seeds. This lecture is related to my final year thesis paper as part in the masters basic requirements. I hope this article able to enhance our knowledge about Hybrid Seeds and their contribution to global food supply.


Hybrid seeds are produced from naturally out-breeding crops or from which inbred lines are produced by repeated self-pollination. The established inbred lines are crossed to produce First generations (F1) hybrid seeds. The hybrid seeds are prized because they produce uniform plants benefiting from the effect called heterosis (hybrid vigor). Heterosis can result in a large increase in yield over the inbred lines or comparable lines that are out-crossing. The precise basis of heterosis is still unclear, but epistasis and over-dominance are thought to be involved. Epistasis is the interaction between different genes and over-dominance is a condition where the heterozygotes (genes represented by two different versions) are superior to either homozygotes (gene represented by the same versions). The F1 hybrid seed is heterozygous in many genes.


The purpose of Hybrid seed is planted to produce a crop that is harvested for use. Saving seed from the crop and planting it is undesirable because the two different versions of the genes in the F1 hybrid segregate out in the offspring and producing an extremely variable progeny. In other words he said the superior qualities of the F1 hybrid will have all disappeared. The hybrid is obtained by crossing the inbred lines in which therefore, have to be separately maintained. Thus, only the seed companies produce hybrid seeds and farmers must buy those seeds from the company every year. Malaysia import huge amount of hybrid seed amounting more than RM 15 million annually. The hybrid seeds are leafy vegetable seeds, watermelon seeds, Fruity vegetable seeds and melon seeds and of course sweet corn.


According to my lecturer in university he did mentions that scientists by the name of Dr Wallace graduated from University with an agriculture degree and later studied statistics thereafter on his own. He later taught the subject at Iowa State University and used his knowledge to develop the first commercial hybrid maize. In 1926, he founded the Hi-Bred Corn company (now Pioneer Hi-Bred Seed Company, a subsidiary of Dupont Chemical Company) and later entered politics. He was made Secretary of Agriculture before being elected vice-president of the United States. Wallace was noted for his concern for the common man and envisioned hybrid corn as a means of providing bountiful food at low prices for the masses.


According to my lecturer, the first corn hybrids were made by detasseling the plants of the maternal inbred-line by removing the male flowers so that the female flowers on the plants can only be fertilized by pollen produced from plants of another male line. The detasseling operation used to be performed mainly by young girls employed during the summer months. Later on the male-sterile lines were developed that did not produce fertile male flowers or pollen. The male-sterile maternal lines were fertilized with paternal lines that allowed the hybrid seed to produce both male and female flowers. The male-sterile lines corn are most frequently altered in the mitochondrial genome which leading to the inhibition of male flower development . A number of such lines are now available.


He said that the early development of male-sterile lines led to disaster, however. The primary line used in the 1960s contained the T (Texas) cytoplasm male-sterility gene and by 1970, over 85% of the commercial maize planted contained that gene. The gene also caused a pleiotropic (multiple effects due to a single gene) susceptibility to a fungus disease. During a the 1970 summer the disease spread widely particularly in the summer corn belt disease. The impact on maize production was disastrous and leading to a return to hand-detasseling for a number of years until alternate male-sterility lines could be developed. The lesson that should have been learned was that the absence of diversity is bound to lead to disastrous epidemics but that lesson tends to get ignored in favour of risky but profitable genetic manipulations. The history is an important record for plant breeders to remember.


My lecturer continues to say that Rice Hybrids have been produced using cytoplasmic male-sterility. Over-dominance and epistatic genes were implicated as the basis for heterosis (and inbreeding depression, a phenomenon in which inbred lines suffer decreased yield). Alfalfa interspecies hybrids showed heterosis where the interspecies hybrids are a little different from those originating from inbred lines but in general they act similarly to inbred lines. At this time I really confused about the facts given by my lecturer. I have to read more related reference books in the library to go deeps in this topic.


He continues his lecture by saying that a large number of vegetable crops have been hybridized. Hybrid cucumbers have been produced by hand pollination by the removal of male flowers or  their gynoecy (property of producing only female flowers). There does not seem to be an available male sterility gene . Hot and sweet peppers have been hybridized. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic sterility are used in some cases. Most hybrid-pepper seed production is carried out in China, India or Thailand but not in Malaysia. About two-thirds of commercial onions are hybrids. Malaysia does not produce onions but import more than USD 3.45 million annually. These are produced using male sterility lines. Hybrid cabbage shows strong heterosis and the use of such hybrids is expanding. The seed is produced using male sterile lines.


Since most of the male sterile lines used commercially contain mitochondrial genes but such genes are not readily available in a number of crops. Genetic engineers have developed a system of male-sterility based on transformation of the chloroplast with a gene for beta-ketothiolase that interferes with fatty acid synthesis that leading to disrupted anther tissue and a failure to produce pollen. The beta-ketothiolase gene is controlled by a light sensitive promoter and so that male-fertility can be restored in hybrids using several days of continual illumination. The system was developed in tobacco but may be extended to food crops, barring unforeseen complications. At this time I almost very sleepy….


When my Lecturer start to move to a new topic that’s is GM.. I awake with round eyes. He said a number of Genetically Modified (GM) male-sterile crops have been developed and tested in the field. In Canada a male-sterile transgene was introduced into the nuclear gnome of canola and then that construction was approved for and has been in commercial production. The transgenic construct included a barnase ribonuclease gene controlled by a tapetum promoter. Barnase kills pollen cells thus rendering the plant male-sterile. In the hybrid male fertility is restored using the barstar inhibitor of barnase although barnase is well known to be toxic to animal cells. The development continued and the technology came to be used to protect GM traits patented by agribusiness corporations such as herbicide tolerance under the general rubric of genetic use restriction technology. Such crops were extensively field tested in Europe and we have warned that the F1 hybrid grown in the field will actually spread the barnase transgene as well as the herbicide tolerance gene in pollen with potentially harmful ecological impacts. The toxin may well be carried over into the canola press cake used both for both food and feed.


His lecture continue with a tired sound that the development of hybrid seed had left seed production to seed companies for the practical reason that it is the most economical way to maintain appropriate inbred lines and seed production can be isolated from the food production areas of open pollinating crops. But it had also prevented farmers from saving and replanting seeds and making it necessary to purchase seeds every season.


He said in future the biotechnology has gone a step further and demanded that seed production be restricted to companies even when there is no rational basis for the restriction other than corporate greed. They argued that developed countries could benefit from the additional production supposedly to be gained by the technology, while developing countries will suffer from their inability to afford the high extra cost. They predict net deterioration in the developing countries due to the widening gap in productivity. These predictions must be taken with a very large grain of salt. There is at present no evidence that genetic use restriction technologies, or indeed, any genetic modification technology have led to increase in crop yield.


He later said that both hybrids and GM crops lack the diversity required for sustainability in the complex ecosystems of the developing world. What is needed is seed production that takes into account the unique requirements of developing countries, where the farmers’ rights to save, replant and exchange seeds are integral to food sovereignty and food security. As he completed his lecture I am full with the new knowledge. It was a long 2 hours lecture in the cool room and I hope I am able to get a high mark in the exam later. That’s all folks for this entry…


Related articles:
1. OP vs Hybrid seeds (Click here)
2. Pollination (Click here)
3. Benih Sayuran (Klok disini)
4. Harga Benih Sayuran (Klik disini)
5. Industri Benih Malaysia (Klik disini)
6. Kontrol Benih Dunia (Klik disini)
7. Known You Seeds , Taiwan (Klik disini)


By,
M Anem
Melaka
Malaysia
(Monday 7.30 am)

OP SEED VS HYBRID SEEDS

I recently deliver a lecture to a group of farmers in Titi Gantung Agriculture Station at Perak about the potential of producing corn seeds in Malaysia. The basic question came from the participants are WHAT is the different between Open Pollinated Seeds and Hybrid seeds?.... My answers is to say that "Hybrid seeds are the first generation offsprings of two distant and distinct parental lines of the same species and the Seeds taken from a hybrid may either be sterile or more commonly fail to breed true, not incorporating and expressing the desired traits of the parent". It does not familiar with most participant due to their background that never go deep about plant breeding. Since 51 of them asks me to explain further about this topics , I manage to write the answer in my blog. I hope that they can refers and communicate with me on the website. This article I present some of the relevant differences between Open Pollinated Seeds versus Hybrid Seeds based on my study during university lecture and from various sources.  


a. Hybrid Seed
The development of hybrid seed enabled the beginning of the commercial seed market. Farmers were persuaded to buy new hybrid seed each season especially on food crop and short-term crop in Malaysia, replacing the traditional practice of farm-saved seed, due to the "hybrid vigour" which can improve yields. Malaysia imports 98-99% of Hybrid seeds from various country such as Taiwan, China, Thailand and many producing hybrid seed country values at RM 32 million annually. Melon and watermelon seeds among popular seeds imported and planted for domestic and export market valued at RM 300 million every year as fresh produce. Singapore, Hong Kong and China among popular Malaysian export fresh tropical fruit.


The performance of Hybrid seed is also known as "high response" seed. These seeds require fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides and lots of water to achieve their high yields.  The research done is to ensure that the hybrid seeds is very responsive to agriculture practices. Hybrids have been bred with an emphasis on yield at the expense of hardiness and resistance. Breeders will sacrifice disease resistance where pesticides are available. Reliance on these seeds enforces the use of chemical inputs. Hybrid seeds and their required fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation systems have trapped many of the world’s poorest farmers into a cycle of debt. It was reported in India hundreds of farmers have committed suicide due to debt due to uneconomic return of farm produce. In other hands the farmers in developed country enjoy best results in farm production using new high performance hybrid seeds. Introduction of new hybrid seeds seems to assist global food production in the past and future years. 


There is an activity of substitution by farmers of chemical fertilisers for organic methods of returning nutrients to the soil, such as composting, crop rotation and manure creates lifeless dusty soils prone to soil erosion as practiced. An estimated 24 billion tonnes of soil are eroded from the world's agricultural land each year. This is due to the urbanization and modernization activity in many country. In Malaysia the rate of eroded land area are minimum due to the Sustainable Policies introduced by the government. There is reports by scientists that the dust levels in the lower atmosphere have tripled in the last 60 years. It causes the sunlight penetration to the crop reduced and the photosynthesis activity will be affected. The farm yield especially for grains and food crop will become less and needs for new hybrid seeds. 


The creation of New Modern Hybrid Seeds require large amounts of water often necessitating the construction of irrigation systems and dams. The experience in poor countries is that dams serve the rich minority and disrupt the natural watersheds essential to poorer farmers. To build these dams millions of people have been forcibly moved from their homes and fertile soils in river valleys have been flooded. The latest dam construction completed was in China which for power electricity and affect huge fertile agriculture area also affect other downstream country. This food crop area submerged under water and needs new area for food production. Did China used new Hybrid Seeds to increase their food production?  


b. Open pollinated seeds
By definition the Open-pollinated varieties are the traditional varieties which have been grown and selected for their desirable traits for millennial. The process of producing Open Pollinated seeds are not as complicated ad producing Hybrid Seeds. The amount of open pollinated seeds more in volume compare to the production of hybrid seeds. Many seed growers survive in their seeds business due to the open pollinated seeds. There was a Standard of Procedures to produce open pollinated seeds. Normally the OP seeds are cheaper than Hybrid Seeds. Most of grain seeds are OP Seeds such as paddy seeds, Corn Seeds, Wheat seeds, Sorghum Seeds and other selected vegetable seeds. Normally OP Seeds grow well without high inputs because they have been selected under organic conditions and natural.


The OP seed varieties have better flavor and reported as hardier and have more flexibility than hybrid varieties. Breeders cannot manipulate complex characteristics such as flavour as easily as they can size and shape. The OP seeds are stable due to the long selection process by the plant breeders and tested. OP Seeds hardier from pests attack, disease resistance, response to fertilizer, heat tolerance, water usage and many other factors. These seeds are dynamic, that is they mutate and adapt to the local ecosystem, as opposed to modern hybrids, which are static. Commercial breeders lack the incentive to produce new open pollinated varieties from which farmers could save seed and replant.


The Hybrid seeds provide better productivity in the future and produce many new varieties for food production. Both Hybrid Seeds and OP Seeds are important in new planting program for farmers. Since the hybrid seeds are more expensive in the market, the OP Seeds are able to be the second alternative for many crop types. Not all crop are suitable for hybrid due to genetic characteristics and many other factors. Many plants depends on vegetative reproduction system for true to type seeds or seedlings. The amount of global seeds market about USD 32 billion or may up to USD 45 billion annually. Malaysia seeds industry reported about RM 30 million. I hope this article able to explain to my participants about the Hybrid Seeds and OP Seeds. Any further inquiry the participants can communicate through my blog comments. Thank You.


NEW SEEDS...HYBRID SEEDS...
MANY SEEDS...OP SEEDS....
BUY HYBRID SEEDS...MORE EXPENSIVE...
BUY OP SEEDS....LESS EXPENSIVE...


By,
M Anem
Lebuh Air Keroh
Jalan Istana
Melaka
Malaysia
(Monday morning - on vacation)
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...