Friday, February 19, 2010

NEMATODE







NEMATODE?
What is it?..... I was first heard about nematode on my second year during university in 1978.
Nematode actually is a type of "roundworms" from the most diverse of Pseudoceolomates with more than 28,000 types in which about 16,000 has Parasitic Characteristic. Nematode can live in the soil, plants (especially root) and water. Nematode use plant cell (root, stem and leaf parts) as food source so that cause damage the whole crop to serious stage. Nematode are the "Host" for certain Virus as a vector.

Physically, nematode cause a serious problem especially in food crop plants. The symptom of attack such lesion or cause blackish colour leaf/stem of the plants. Other symptom was slow plant growth rate, Leaf Clorosis, Major Leaf Falls and stunted trees. It worst during dry season due to lack of water and evapotranspiration. Nematode develop Root-Knot at the root hair that block the nutrient and water to flow in the Xylem and Phylum system. Local District Department of Agriculture reported the most popular Nematode in Malaysia found are Guava Nematode (Meloigyne spp). Its was due to the ability and frequency to attack crop like Guava (Psidium guava) and Chili (Capsicum annum). The attack on its root cause guava leaf turn to blackish colour, root rot and damage the rooting system. Durian (Durio zigberthinus) also attack by a type of nematode ( Xipinema spp) but the symptom are not severe as those attack in guava.

There was few (4) control measures for nematode technically. First control measures is by Chemical application. The Fumigant can reduce nematodes in soil and the best application during dry season but the cost is expensive. Carbofuran (Local brand such as NEMACUR) or Fenamiphos (FURADAN) can be use at difference treatment level. Nemacur used at 20-25 gram/tree at four (4) monthly interval. For Furadan (Bnad Furadan 3G) the recommendation rate is 50 - 60 gram/tree. Application by chemical need proper advisory supervision by DOA or authority on Fumigation Activity.

For second control measures is "HOT WATER TREATMENT" method by dipping young seedling (eg banana/Chili) in 55 Celsius water for 20-25 minutes. Third measures was Biological control is using bacteria intrusion to affected area to reduce nematode population . Two type of bacteria was Bacillus petrans and Paecelomuces lilacinus. The fourth control measures is to apply Good Agriculture Practices such as the use resistant variety, application of huge organic fertilizer (Chicken dung etc), inter cropping system, use of seashell material and reject imported soil from affected area.





Inspection of nematode on Guava plot at TKPPM Sekijang Segamat Johor by writers.


Writers visit to PPK Muar Dalam Guava Farm at Chempelak ZPM in Segamat-Muar Border, Johor growing Guava Farm recently shows that the whole 20 ha farm attacked with nematode seriously. About 85% of guava trees (age 8 years) and 65% of banana was damaged at more than 80% severity. Application of Nemacur and Furadan was implemented but it's too late and not economic. The MOA Inc Team visited the farm last months and advised the management to replace with new crop. Other area was in Sengkang, Bukit Gambir where guava growing area that was seriously damaged due to nematode attack. Nematode is a type of worm unwanted to guava farmers.

TALK ABOUT NEMATODE......SCARY METHOD....
TO CONTROL NEMATODE....NEED KNOWLEDGE....
SYMPTOM NEMATODE ATTACK... IT IS A SLACK..
GUAVA, CHILI....FAVORITE ATTACK...

Relared articles:
1. Racun Nematod (Click here)
2. Kawalan Perosak Bersepadu - IPM (Klik sini)
3. Plant diseases (Click here)
4. Jambu Batu (Klik disini)
5. What's is in the soil? (Click here)

By
M Anem
DOA MUAR


JOHOR
MALAYSIA

Monday, February 15, 2010

DADIH DURIAN

Dadeh Durian yang dihasilkan sangat enak dan berkualiti di Keluarkan di Muar, Johor.


Durian (Durio ziberthinus) merupakan tanaman buah-buahan yang paling luas di tanam di Malaysia dan di gelar 'Raja Buah-buahan". Terdapat seluas 25,383 hektar tanaman durian di Negeri Johor dimana seluas 8,213 hektar sahaja terdapat di Daerah Muar pada tahun 2009. Hampir 65% durian yang di tanam di Muar adalah durian biasa sementara 35% merupakaan Durian Klon (D24, D99, D16,, D168 dan sebagainya). FAMA Tangkak Muar merupakan satu antara Pusat FAMA yang mempu mempproses durian sejuk beku dengan Teknologi "Quick Freeze" yang mana buah tersebut di ekspot keluar negara. Terdapat juga kemudahan untuk ' depulping" atau mengasingkan isi buah dengan biji di FAMA Tangkak.

Teknologi kali ini penulis berpeluang mengikuti kursus membuat DADEH DURIAN anjuran MARDI. Bahan asas dadeh durian ialah isi durian, gula, susu rendah lemak, air, susu skim, karageenan dan pewarna tiruan. Produk digaul dan dimasak dalam suhu 80 darjah celcius sebelum diisi dalam 100 ml cup plastik dan disejukkan pada suhu 2 darjah celcius semalaman. Kajian mendapati pH produk ialah 6.7 dan kandungan pepejal terlarut 19 Brix. Produk ini tahan sehingga 3 minggu jika disimpan dalam sejuk .


CARA BUAT DADEH DURIAN:

1. Panaskan air sehingga suam.
2. Asingkan bahagian air hingga larut susu
3. Gula, Garam, Karageenan digaul rata4. Perlahan2 masukkan kedalam air
5.Masak sehingga mendidih dan larutkan
6. Masukan isi durian perlahan hingga larut.
7. Kacau hingga rata8. Masak sehingga suhu 90-95 Celcius (7-10 min)
9. Padam api, buang buang buih dan
10. Masukkan dalm cup dan sejukkan.

'SELAMAT MENCUBA"


DADEH DURIAN.... SEDAP DI MAKAN
DADEH DURIAN....MSEDAP JIKA SEJUK...
DADEH DURIAN... TAHU BUAT TAK....
BELAJAR BUAT.... DAPAT DUIT LEBIH....

By
M Anem
DOA Muar

Sunday, February 14, 2010

Labu Air

Tanaman Labu Air di Projek PB Komersial Sayuran Parit Sagil, Tangkak, Johor.

Labu Air (Lagenaria siceraria) darri keluarga Cucurbitaceae sama seperti tanaman timun merupakan sejenis sayuran buah yang kurang popular di kalangan Masyarakat Melayu tetapi popular dikalangan kaum Cina. Labu Air atau calabash (English), Pinyin (Chinese), Upo (Philipines) dan sebagainya merupakan sejenis sayuran buah berwarna hijau. Saiz buah besar sehingga mencapai lebih 2 kg sebiji. Pokok labu air hidup subur dalam iklim tropika dan subtropika yang mempunyai cahaya matahari yang banyak dan hujan mencukupi. Labu Air merupakan tanaman menjalar yang ditanam atas tanah atau menggunakan para.

Di Malaysia Labu Air di tanam secara komersial terutama di Negeri Johor. Dilaporkan pada tahun 2009 seluas 29 hektar ditanam terutama di Daerah Kota Tinggi (18 ha), Daerah Mersing (11 ha) dan daerah Johor Bahru (7 ha). Kebanyakkanya di tanam dalam kawasan sayuran komersial kelolaan Jabatan Pertanian Johor. Benih di masukkan kedalam lubang penanaman diatas batas yang telah di lapik dengan plastik silvershine dan diberikan baja asas. Buat penyiraman dua kali sehari kecuali hari hujan. Jarak tanaman disyorkan ialan 1 m dalam barisan (1 baris ) atau 3 segi. Pembajaan dengan NPK 15:15:15 dengan kadar 20 gm/pokok pada peringkat awal dan ketika hampir berbuah bubuh baja NPK 12:12:17:2 dengan kadar 20 -30 gram/pokok.

Kawal perosak dan penyakit yang ada dengan cara manual atau semburan racun serangga atau racun kulat. Antara perosak yang menyerang labu air adalah seperti Lalat Buah (Bactocera spp), Ulat Pengirek Batang, Ulat Makan Daun dan Kutu Thrips. Buah yang matang dituai dengan pisau tajam dan dibersihkan serta di gred mengikut saiz dan kualiti. Sehektar lambu air mampu menghasiklan sekitar 25,000 - 28,000 kg labu air. Harga ladang diantara RM 0.60 hingga RM 1.10 bergantung kepada harga pasaran.

MAKAN LABU AIR.... BUAT SOP JE....
TANAM LABU AIR... SENANG JE....
JUAL LABU AIR .... TAHAN JE....
BELAJAR TEKNOLOGI... NAK TAU JE...

By
M Anem
DOA Muar

Friday, February 12, 2010

LCC on Paddy

Application of LCC meter to study Nitrogen optimization.

What is Leaf Colour Chart (LCC)?

LCC is an ideal tool to optimise Nitrogen intake based on Paddy Leaf Colour compare to the chart colour. Technically the intensity of green colour paddy leaf related to chlorophyll and Nitrogen content. Two type of equipment to check the leaf colour intensity was CHLOROPHYLL METER and LCC METER. LCC is manufactured in 4 panel LCC and 6 Panel LCC and simple t
o use at very low costs. Crop suitable for LCC Meter was Paddy, Corn, Wheat, Maize and Sugarcane. In Malaysia LCC was introduce to Agriculture Officer or Extension Agents for paddy area by Subject Matter Officer.

Since it was cheap, easy to use and all farmers affordable to buy and use. It helps Officers and Farmers the RIGHT time of Nitrogen application on paddy farm. It measures leaf color intensity that is related to leaf N status. The LC C helps farmers to monitor N on crop status inrespective on N sources whether organic, biological or chemical.

HOW TO USE LCC?

1. First record LCC meter 21 days after transplating (Direct seeding 14 days)
2. Reading LCC period from 1000 hrs to 1600 hrs
3. Last LCC reading on Flowering stage
4. Select 10 tiller randomised paddy with was uniform in growth
5. Select matured top leaf with "Y" shape
6. Compare the leaf color with LCC Meter
7. If leaf color in between 2 indicator - get the reading (eg. 2.5 between 2-3)
8. Alternate the reading in 7 - 10 days duration.
9. If reading more than 50% - apply Nitrogen at 23-30 kg.n/ha

Below is the result:
Below was the factor affect the LCC efficiency.

a. Paddy Variety (MR84, MR 220, MR 219)
b. Intensity of paddy tiller
c. Sunlight effect (More or less sunlight that period)
d. Other nutrient status in the soil
e. agronomic practices
f. Water level and pH

Vietnam reported to use of LCC meter in paddy production widely and estimated about 309,505 unit has been sold to the farmers. Philippines only has 23,858 unit, India (28,662), Thailand (15 unit), Indonesia (15,298 unit) and Malaysia (725 unit). Application of LCC will be more efficient when the farmers follow "RICE CHECK" package technology provide by DOA.

By
M Anem
DOA

Thursday, February 11, 2010

POMELO


Pomelo farm at Jementah Segamat, Johor with clone PO 55 organised by DOA.


POMELO (Citrus grandis) is the largest of citrus fruits that belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is also known as Limau Bali or Limau Tambun (In Malays) or Shaddock in common language. Pomelo derives its name from a word of unknown origin 'pampelmoose'. The tasty fruit is popular locally for its taste and features significantly in the Chinese New Year celebrations. In Malaysia about 1,895 hectare of pomelo grown commercially and estimated production 8,830 metric tons in 2012. Largest growing state was Johor (380 ha) and Perak (310 ha) in which Segamat District alone growing more than 313 hectare. The most popular varieties or clone of pomelo grown in Johor was PO 55 or the Limau Besar Ledang variety. This variety was registered in 1990 and originated from Perak. This article I would like to share at "Anim Agriculture Technology" the pomelo technology based on my agriculture extension program for pomelo during my tenure in Melaka and Segamat years ago.


Pomelo believed to be an ancestor of the grapefruit, is native to the Southeast Asian and the Indo-China regions. The exact place of origin is unknown but Malaysia has their own pomelo varieties recorded by DOA. It is most likely from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia where it is found in the wild (mostly small size and not commercial) . The Chinese cultivated it as a crop for thousands of years as it features significantly in the Chinese new year festivities. Variations of pomelo, either bred through selection and propagation or found as natural hybrids, have been cultivated in different places. In 1884, a variety of pomelo, limau bali, was imported into Malaya from Indonesia by Sir Hugh Low and it was grown in Penang and Perak. A peculiar variety found in the Dutch East Indies called the limau wangkang by Malays, consists of a small fruit enclosed inside a larger fruit. Some types of pomelo have no rind. It was grown as ornamental and commercial. Until today there are 18 registered pomelo in National Variety Listing at Department of Agriculture and 3 variety are recommended for commercial planting. Below are the Table 1 showing all the 18 variety registered and one not yet registered (Variety Kampong or Tok Ali).





In Southeast Asia, pomelo  is grown as a cultivatable crop in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. In Malaysia pomelo is widely grown in the state of Johor, Perak, Kedah, Melaka and Kelantan. It is also grown commercially in parts of the USA, Israel, China and Japan and is found growing non-commercially in India, Jamaica and the Middle East. Pomelo, known to be the largest of all citrus fruits, can grow as large as a foot in diameter and weigh up to 25 pounds. Popular variations of the fruit are the P051 (Variety Shating) and P052 (Variety Tambun) where the fruit is sweet and delicious. The latest clone was PO 55 known locally as 'Variety Limau Besar Ledang' that was popular to the Southern Region in Peninsular Malaysia especially at Jementah area, Segamat, Johor.


The pomelo tree is a large bushy tree with an irregular crown growing to around 5 to 15 m in height. The thorny tree has many branches and it produces fruits all year round. Its bark is brownish yellow and thick. The leaves are simple and grow to about 2 to 12 cm wide. Oil glands are present on them as small dots and this gives the dark green leaves a shiny appearance. manuring program during vegetative period with NPK 15:15:15 for about 150 gram/tree and during Reproductive stage using NPK 12:12:17:2 at 300 gm/tree. The use of 'fish product waste' and organic manure seem to increase productivity and fruit quality. Half bag of chicken dung layered under the canopy each tree for every 4-6 months.


Among pests for pomelo was Fruit Fly (Bactocera papayae), Citrus Leaf Miner (Phyllocnitis citrella), Citrus butterfly (Papilio demanecus malaya), Citrus fruit borer (Citripetris sagitferella), Black Citrus Aphid (Toxoptera citrise) and few others. It can control by chemical such as Deltramethrin, malathion and other insecticide and sanitation or IPM measures. The farmers at Jementah area at Segamat established an association called as "Jementah Pomelo Growers Association" and one of the association tasks is to regulate a surveillance system to control the infestation of pests and diseases. It has more than 50 membership consists of pomelo growers lead by Mr Tan Ching Koi (Foto as below). From my interview with the leaders and members during extension group visits, they claims that the pomelo produced from their area met with the Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) standards to produce high fruits standards quality.



Mr Tan Ching Koi wrapping pomelo at his farm in Jementah, Johor. 
Its takes few months for him to harvest ripe pomelo.


Ripe fruit when crushed, they give off a strong smell. The flowers are yellowish white or plain white, fragrant, solitary and grow to around 2.5 cm wide. The pomelo fruit is the largest of all citrus fruits. Its outer skin is rough and easy to peel. It is light green to yellow and dotted with oil glands. The fruit is either round or oblong with a white thick spongy pith that encloses the edible portion of the fruit. Each fruit consists of 9 to14 segments covered with paper-thin skin. According to Mr Tan Ching Koi as the Association Group Leader, the wrapping of young fruit as tennis bll  size are very significant to prevent the attack of fruit borer. They organised the wrapping activities with proper wrapping material that is used old newspaper and tagged with various color to determine the maturity period. The wrapped fruit are counted so that only adequate amount of fruit numbers per tree able to provide uniform standard fruit size. The unwanted small fruit are removed before wrapping activities. 


The flesh of the fruit is white, light yellow, pink or rose-red, juicy with a sweet sour or spicy sweet taste. Some fruits leave a bitter after taste in the mouth. The seeds are few in number, yellowish white and large.Usage and potential of the pomelo fruit is eaten fresh or processed into juice. The rind is candied or used in jams. Malays boil the rind in a syrup. For cooking purposes, it is sometimes used in place of grapefruit. Many local people like to consume pomelo as fresh by peeling the thick skin with sharp knife. The fresh removed from the skin and eaten raw to most pomelo lovers. The skin are processed with sweet , salty and sour taste as processed junk food served with well packed.  


The Chinese eat the sweet and sour fruit is eaten to fortify the lungs and the spleen. They make various medicament's from the seeds, flowers, mature peel, and slices of young fruit by usually drying them up. It is used in treating cough, swellings, vomiting, indigestion, in removing phlegm and resolving alcohol toxins and hangover. The Malays eat the fruit to treat abdominal pains, oedema and phlegm. The leaves are boiled into a lotion and applied on swellings and ulcers. Pomelo fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin C. If you able to pass through Tambun area in Ipoh, Perak or able to visits Jementah Pomelo farms , try to purchase those pomelo fruits with SALM Logo (Accredited Quality Standard) for best quality. The tag price for pomelo ranged from RM 5.00 per piece to RM 12.00 per fruit depending on the variety, freshness, size and what type of car you drives. Have a nice taste of local pomelo fruits. Sayonara!


ASK FOR POMELO....DON'T LETS GO...
BIG POMELO.........DO YOU THINK SO?...
GROW POMELO ... ANY MARKET ALSO...
LEARN ABOUT PEMELO... LIKE TO GROW...


By,
M Anem
Senior Agronomist,
DOA Muar
Johor, 
Malaysia
(Updated on 21 July 2013)

Papaya Pest - Fruit Fly

Asian papaya fruit fly about the same length and size of housefly.

Asian Papaya Fruit Fly (Bactocera papayae) or Locally known as Lalat Buah Betik Asia was a serious pest to papaya (Carica papaya) and also attack Starfruit, Dokong, Soursot, Citrus, Mango, mangosteen, jackfruit, banana and rambutan as a host. it grows 7 mm length and has a pair of clear wings normally black chest and paler abdomen with a distinctive black T-shape marking on the back. Under Order Diptera the main damage was the FRUITS. The attack of fruit fly occurred when ripening almost there but actually the proses started long before. The adult fruit fly inject the eggs at young stage and their larvae will damage the whole fruit if not properly control. This pest spread an endemic pest to Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Borneo, Singapore and recently in Papua New Guinea.

Adult female flies lay their eggs just under the skin of fruit, depositing fruit decaying bacteria at the same time. Within one to two days, the eggs hatch into maggots (larvae) which feed on the decaying fruit, causing premature fruit drop. Considerable damage can occur inside the flesh before obvious signs of infestation can be seen on the fruit. The most obvious signs of infestation are small discoloured patches on the skin, which develop from punctures or stings made by the female as she lays her eggs. The fruit fly egg injected to fruit in 2 days before ripening process. It takes 7-12 days for the larvae to leave the fruit to develop into pupae in the soil. Adults emerge from the pupae in another 10-14 days, and become sexually mature after one to two weeks. They live for several months and are capable of reproducing throughout their life span. The whole life cycle of fruit fly about 16 - 51 days. Like most tropical fruit fly species, papaya fruit fly multiplies rapidly and can disperse over large distances.

Chemical control applied when it was necessary with Fenthion (eg CH Fention 50EC with 10 ml Insecticide/ 10 liter water, malathion (15 ml chemical/ 10 liter water) or Deltamethrin (Decis at 10-22 ml chemical/10 liter water). The spaying direct to the almost ripe fruit or there is symptom of fruit fly attack. Methyl Eugenol trap applied to control fruit fly population in the area. Farm sanitation important in papaya farm to reduce fruit fly population and collect all drop fruit on the ground and demolish.

In Johor there is 443.5 hectare of papaya in 2008 produce 6,780 mt especially for domestic and export market. Largest growing area was in Muar District (188.4 ha), Batu Pahat (98.4 ha) and Segamat (68 ha). Popular variety grown was Betik Sekaki and Betik Hong Kong. The Department of Agriculture Muar District monitor the Quarantine and Inspection Service is responsible for papaya fruit fly surveillance on each inhabited. The Extension program plan to ensure the fruit fly under control in papaya active growing area such at Tangkak, Pagoh, Bukit serampang and surrounding area.
By
M Anem
DOA Muar

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Potential of Malaysian Fruits

A mixed orchard farm at Dusun Nukleus Lenga, Muar, Johor. Is it Commercial Scale?

Fruit industry in Malaysia has given a new lifelines with the introduction of Balance of Trades (BOT) strategy under Ministry of Agriculture. The hectarage of fruit area was stable at 281,223 hectare in 2006 to only 275,650 in 2009 and estimated only 282,680 hectare in 2010. In case of production stable at 1,699,800 kg in 2009. The target of this sub sector is to achieve a positive balance of RM 1.34 billion in 2010 compared to a negative balance about RM 223 million in 2005. The aspiration is to produce more tropical fruit to create Malaysia as an net tropical fruit exporter.

Types of fruit targeted for this sector was Papaya (Carica papaya), Durian (Durio zigbethinus), Banana ( Musa spp), Seedless Watermelon (Citrullus lunatus), Starfruit (Averhoa carambola), Pineapple (Ananas comosus), Rambutan (Nephellium lappacium) and Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Major importing countries from Malaysia was Singapore, Brunei, Hong Kong, China, The Natherlands, Germany, UAE and Saudi Arabia. The curent production of Malaysian Fruit was estimated 1.767 metric tonnes in 2009 with Pineapple as the main produced (400.0 metric tone) followed by Durian (288.9 mt), Banana (383.2 mt) and Watermelon (228.8 mt).


The new potential Malaysian Fruit was Dragon Fruit (Hylocerus undatus), Pomelo (Citrus grandis), Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Salacca (Salacca gabrescens) and Longan (Dimocarpus longan). Recently there was a problem in Pitaya production due to the Ervinia disease in Southern Peninsular Malaysia cause reduction in export activity. Citrus greening disease also cause problem in citrus production but not affect Pomelo seriously. The increasing numbers of commercial tropical fruit grower rely on government policies and private driven commitments.

New variety and modern farming technology has to be introduced to the farmers so that more profitability and quality produce with higher price obtained by farmers. Grading and Packaging Technology must improve so that the export activity and marketing channel available for farmers. Marketing of tropical fruit is becoming very competitive with the different safety and quality standards set by customers. It also involves other inputs such as Services (Logistic and Communication), Organization, Human Resource and Innovation. The new integrated marketing system and strategies such an appointment of agriculture attache and accreditation schemes (SALM, SOM, Malaysia's Best) should be there in the system. Aggressive promotion and campaign establishment will make Malaysia to compete in global market.

MALAYSIAN FRUIT .... MALAYSIA'S BEST...
QUALITY FRUIT....APPLY SALM/SOM...
EXPORT FRUIT..... HELP FRUIT FARMERS...
EAT MORE FRUIT .... BETTER LIFE QUALITY...

By
M Anem
DOA Muar

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

BIOTEKNOLOGI

Tanaman menggunakan benih transgenik memberikan hasil lebih tinggi.

APA ITU BIOTEKNOLOGI?

Bioteknologi dimaksudkan dengan aplikasi teknologi untuk memperbaiki sesuatu organisma. Lebih tepat Bioteknologi adalah teknologi bagi mengubahsuai fungsi biologikal sesuatu organisma dengan menambahkan 'GENES' dari suatu organisma yang lain bagi tujuan kebaikan. Era ICT pada masa ini akan digantikan dengan Era Bioteknologi. Negera2 maju membangunkan teknologi Bioteknologi dalam bidang Pertanian, Tumbuhan, Kesihatan, Perubatan, Pembiakbakaan dan sebagainya.

Berikut adalah bidang2 sains yang diliputi dalam Bioteknologi:
a. Recombinant DNA/rDNA
b. Tisu Kultur tumbuhan
c. 'Gene splicing'
d. Sistem enzim
e. Pembiak baik tumbuhan
f. Kultur meristem
g. Kultur sel mamalian
h. Imunologi
i. Biomolekular
j. Fermentasi

Secara umum, Teknik Bioteknologi tumbuhan boleh dibahagikan kepada dua iaitu Teknik Manipulasi Gene dan Teknik Memasukkan Gene. Kedua-dua kaedah ini digunakan dalam tumbuhan dengan menggunakan kaedah Agrobacterium dan Gene Gun. Pemilihan gene yang baik suatu tumbuhan yang dikehendakki di masukkann dalam sel gene yang dikehendakki. Antara ciri2 baik yang dikehendakki seperti ciri penghasilan yang tinggi, rintang terhadap penyakit, tahan kepada rumpai, tahan kepada kesidan tanah serta kualiti atau mutu baik. Kajian teliti dan bersistem perlu dijalankan bagi mmendapatkan baka tumbuhan yang baik dan bernilai. Faktur Keselamatan Makanan (Food Safety) merupakan satu aspek utama dalam pembangunan Bioteknologi.

Di Malaysia, Bioteknologi dalam bidang pertanian boleh dikatakan agak baik jika dibandingkan dengan negara-negara maju walau masih banyak yang perlu dibangunkan. Banyak kejayaan dicapai dalam bidang pembiakbaka tumbuhan, kawalan penyakit tanaman, peningkatan kualiti bahan tanaman dan sebagainya. Bidang Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaies guinensis) antara komoditi yang banyak dibangunkan menggunakan Konsep Bioteknologi. Benih tanaman transgenik telah dihasilkan oleh badan2 penyelidikan di Malaysia. Selain kelapa sawit, tanaman lain yang telah berjaya dimajukan dengan transgenik adalah Padi (Oryza sativa) , Getah (Hevea braziliensis), Orkid dan Betik (Carica papaya). Malaysia juga adalah proaktif dalam isu biokeselamatan GMAC, National Guidelines dan Biosafety Bill.
Rakyat Malaysia perlu lebih maju dalam Bidang Bioteknologi dengan memberikan lebih banyak pemahaman dan pendidikan pada masa akan datamg.

BIOTEKNOLOGI ADALAH ....... ERA AKAN DATANG...
BIOTEKNOLOGI .... UNTUK KESIHATAN,
BIOTEKNOLOGI ..... UNTUK KECUKUPAN MAKANAN....
BIOTEKNOLOGI ..... UNTUK KESELAMATAN MAKANAN...

By,
M Anem
DOA Muar

Monday, February 8, 2010

Silvershine Plastic

No weeds on corn farm due to silvershine plastic layer of Demonstration Plot.


SILVERSHINE?

What is silvershine plastic in agriculture?
Most modern farmers rely on silvershine plastic in agriculture practices for many reasons. If you ever heard of mulching and cover crop... silvershine perform better in their technology. Silvershine Plastic is a long sheet of plastic which one of the side contain silver components and the other side original black colour. The thickness of this product depend on the usage purposes. In food production activity, silvershine plastic is an important components to reach various factors. Silvershine normally used to cover standard beds before planting. Sizes and length per role depends on usage.

An corn farmers does not use silvershine plastic has to control weeds with costs.

Below is the benefits of using Silvershine Plastic:

a. Control moisture content in the bed.
b. Control from weed growth
c. Effect of Silver Layer - Heat and light for tree
d. Reduce evaporation and Soil Erosion
e. Better application of fertilizers
f. Control pests and diseases
g. More than once usage ( 2-3 times)
h. Simple, easy to handle and reasonable price

Chili growers almost 80% used silvershine plastic. The best effect of this plastic is their ability to get rid of THRIPS under chili leaf with the sunlight reflection and heat produced by silver layer. Other pests such as mites, leafhoopers and small insects could not stay under chili leafs. My visit to Myanmar recently to their Research Station shows that study has been done on using silvershine plastic to mung beans crop. Even though it was only a research done but their researcher said it was practical.

In Malaysia, one role of silvershine priced between RM 40 - RM 60 depend on quality and quantity. There is 3 feet width up to 4 feet width and various thickness. Local factory producers now supply for domestic and international market. Farmers growing melon, watermelon, fruity vegetables (Chili, Cucumber, Angled Loofa, Bitter Gourd, Ocra, etc) and many other food crop use this plastic. It reduces cost on spraying weedicide, Insecticide, Fungicide, irrigation and other related costs. So..... use silvershine plastic.


USE SLIVERSHINE PLASTIC.....NOT ALLERGIC.....
CHECK THEIR BENEFITS......OF COURSE LIKE A MAGIC...
IT IS EXPENSIVE?......CHECK FOR YOUR OWN SICK......
REMEMBER TO USE......SILVERSHINE PLASTIC......


By
M Anem
DOA Muar

Mushroom - Raw Material Costing

Grey Oyter Mushroom ready for harvest at Muar District Project.

Grey Oyster Mushroom (Localy known as Cendawan Tiram Kelabu) was a popular comodity among Muar farmers since 2005 when Pagoh Agriculture Special Project (Projek Khas Peertanian Pagoh) was implemented. Since then about 15 farmers group active in muchroom production. However, the price of raw material for mushroom production tremendously increase due to petrol price hike in 2007/2008 and other factors are supply and demand. Recently I conduct simple survey to the selected farmers to gain an information about availabity of raw material and the costing for mushroom production.
The survey conducted for 7 farmers located at Kg Terus Panchor, Kg Tg Selabu, Kg Muda Jaya, Kg Parit Simpang, Kg Bt 27 Lenga, Kg Sg Terap and Kg Bukit Pasir all in Muar District of Johore. I visit all 7 structures and had an interview with the operators. According to Rosli, he already managed for 8 cycle to produce mushroom from begining. He was trained by DOA personels at Parit Simpang Training Center on hands-on training for 5 days. He said that the price of mushromm production material was increase from before especially on oil based material.
Below are some reasonable price list in Muar District of Johor for mushroom production from my research late 2009.












LEFT: OSTER MUSHROOM
FARM AT KG SG TERAP,
MUAR UNDER DOA
SUPERVISION



1. GREY OYSTER MUSHROOM

a. Substrate bag - RM 0.75 per bag (Inoculated)
b. Spawn - RM 3.00 per pack
c. Ring (Plastic) - RM 0.058 per pieces
d. Flat Cap - RM 0.053 per pcs
e. Cultivation cap - RM 0.078 per set
f. Plastic bag - RM 13.00 per /kg
g. Calcium carbonate - RM 0.30 /kg

h. Saw Dust (Rubber) - RM 85.00/ton
i. Rice bran - RM 1.20 /kg

j. Fire wood chip - RM 200 /2.5 mt truck
k. Steamer (4x8x5) - RM 6,000/unit


Right: Agriculture Officer
Checking mushroom
for diseases.







2. FOR SUBSTRATE BAG ONLY:
(Price for substrate MUSHROOM - inoculated)

a. White Oyster - RM 1.00/bag
b. Yellow Oyster -RM 0.90/bag
c. Pink Oyster - RM 0.80/bag

d. Abalone - RM 0.80/bag
e. Black Poplar - RM 0.80/bag
f. Black Jelly - RM 3.00/bag
g. Ling-Zhi - RM 1.50/bag

Above price was reported to increase in this year (2010) especially on saw dust and plastic product. My survey shown that the ex-farm price for fresh grey oyster mushroom between RM 6.00 - RM 7.00 depending on grades and size. However there is an anchor company in Muar (C&C Mushroom ) provide contract farming concept with buying price at RM 4.50 per kilogram. Recently few mushroom farmers reported to stop their activity due to the increase in operation cost, low productivity due to diseases and unstable production line. Department of Agriculture in Muar conduct an advice program through extension agent and training program to analyse the situation. Result shown smallholders has not enough capital when more than 50% of the targeted yield was thrown away due to disease. Sanitation and Good Manufacturing Practices (GAP) always in the top SPTP's Extension program.

Visit Ling Zhi Project at Grisek and study the market demand. Ling-zhi claimed was good to cure cancer.


EAT MORE MUSHROOM.........MORE HEALTHY....

GROW MUSHROOM........WHAT THE COST?

By

M Anim

DOA Muar


Sunday, February 7, 2010

CASH CROP : Root & Tubers

Cassava popular grown in Johor Bahru and Kota Tinggi District in Johor.

EDIBLE Roots and Tubers crop are considered cash crop in Malaysia by Department of Agriculture. Those include Cassava, Yam, Sweet Potato and some other tubers. Among all the most popular root /tuber crop were cassava that grown mostly for processing activity. Writers involves to deliver extension services and teaching of tubers package technology for selected group farmers in Johor.
Cassava or Tapioca was grown mostly in Johore, Perak and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia and some in Sabah and Sarawak. Total hectares planted in 2009 recorded about 3,540 hectare. Most cassava grown by small farmers and harvested after 9 -12 months after planting and sold as raw material to Agrobase Industry Processors for making Kerepek and other processed product. There was only 2 factory in Johore which process tapioca to starch and other tapioca end-product. Not many farmers willing to grow cassava due to low farm income compare to oil palm, rubber and other food crop (vegetables). Some factory owner and Agrobase Industry Processor tied with contract farming method of growing cassava to ensure constant fresh tapioca supply. Few variety grown in Malaysia is Sri Pontian, Blag Twig, Yellow Twig and Pulut.


Yam (KELADI in Malays) is another tubers that was important in Malaysia previously grown by farmers mostly on peat soils. Few variety popular among farmers in Johor was Keladi Minyak, Keladi Mawar and Keladi Cina which consumed as fresh for fried yam or raw material for Kerepek Keladi. Fried Yam sold as traditional serving afternoon. Some yam was processed for ice cream (Branded such as WALLS, KING's and others). Yam was grown as commercial commodity in Johore, Selangor, Sarawak and Sabah respectively. Currently lack of planting material supply was the most issues in growing yam. Government provide Agriculture Extension Services to yam farmers at Johore and some projects assistance (such as seedling, land preparation and Inputs) for those who started new project with an amount of RM 2,000.00 per hectare. It's include assistance inputs (Seedling, Fertilizers, Chemicals) and land preparation or other basic farm infrastructures. Nowadays, not many farmers grows yam as large commercial farms.

Sweet Potato (KELEDEK in Malay) or scientifically known as Impomea battas also considered importance tubers crop. There is no specific area identified as sweet potato farming area. Mostly was grown as inter crop under newly oil palm and rubber rehabilitation area. Few area popular with sweet potato production was at Tangkak in Johor, Bidor in Perak and Kelantan. Sweet potato normally consumed as Fresh or Fried (Goreng Keledek) or processed for traditional snacks (Cakar Ayam, Kerepek etc).

TUBERS.........ROOTS...........UMBISI...........
BEST CONSUMED .......IF IT IS FREE............
WHERE TO GET FREE.....PROMOTION PERIOD..........
WHERE TO BUY..FROM FRUIT
OR VEGETABLE STALLS.......

By

M Anem
DOA Muar

Friday, February 5, 2010

Peria Katak

                                                      Penanaman peria katak varieti 321 yang di Tanam oleh En Murad 
di Kelompok Kg Paya Mas Tangkak, Ledang Johor 
kelolaan Jabatan Pertanian.
Peria Katak (Momordica charantia) dari order Cucurbitaceae adalah sejenis sayuran menjalar yang mempunyai permintaan yang baik terutama digunakan sebagai ulaman untuk ubatan oleh masyarakat tempatan. Peria katak berbeza dengan peria biasa dengan ciri-ciri pada kulit yang mengerutu dan berwarna hajau gelap. Peria katak asli (Liar) tumbuh dikawasan yang mendapat sinaran matahari dan mengeluarkan buah yang kecil , berwarna hijau gelap serta sedikit. Jenis Peria Katak Komersial pada masa ini ditanam menggunakan benih hybrid Taiwan No 321 yang lebih komersial. Artikel petang ini saya menulis dalam "Anim Agro Technology" mengenai teknologi penanaman peria katak untuk bacaan dan rujukkan pembaca semua.

Peria Katak No 321 merupakan satu varieti yang sesuai untuk di komersialkan dan harga satu tin benih hybrid antara RM 400.00 - RM450.00 satu tin yang hanya boleh ditanam sekali sahaja (F1). Pada masa ini terdapat seluas kira-kira 26 hektar CHE keluasan tanaman peria katak di usahakan di Daerah Muar dan Ledang. Kawasan tumpuan penanaman peria katak di sekitar Bandar Tangkak, Kg Solok, Sagil dan Sengkang. Kawasan lain adalah disekitar Pagoh, Ledang dan juga kawasan Sungai Balang, Muar. Peria Katak disukai penanam sayur kerana kurang kadar serangan oleh lalat buah jika ditanam dikawasan yang baru dibuka.

Pemeriksaan tanaman peria katak.
Pasaran dan permintaan peria katak adalah terhad dan jika bekalan terlebih maka pernah dilaporkan harga akan turun sehingga RM 0.60 sahaja satu kilogram sedangkan harga purata 'ex-farm' saya dapati tidak kurang RM 2.00.kg atau lingkungan pasaran antara RM 2.20 hingga RM 2.80 sekilogram.

Peria Katak di tanam diatas batas yang di bubuh lapisan plastik silvershine. Batas yang disediakan perlu digaul dengan baja organik (lazimnya tahi ayam) dengan kadar 2 tan satu hektar. Bubuh 2 biji benih setiap lubang dan jarak penanaman sebaris sejauh 1.5 meter dalam barisan. Kalau terlalu rapat maka penghasilan adalah tinggi tetapi pokok cepat mati berbanding jika ditanam dengan jarak lebih jauh. Baja vegetatif NPK 15:15:15 dan baja organik tahi ayam dibubuh peringkat awal penanaman. Baja buah jenis diberikan dengan baja NPK 12:12:17:2 mengikut kadar disyorkan. Penyiraman dijalankan 2 kali sehari dan kerja-kerja kawalan rumpai dijalankan. Kawalan rumpai dengan cara manual (menajak , mencabut) atau gunakan racun kimia secara terkawal.  Perbezaan antara peria katak dengan peria biasa ialah peria katak dikawasan terpencil tidak perlu dibalut. Kajian penulis jika kawasan tersebut "isolated" daripada kawasan tanaman jenis cucurbitaceae yang lain lebih baik. Bagaimanapun pastikan yang Lalat Buah (Daucus spp) sentiasa dipantau kehadirannya.

Buah Peria Katak yang matang dituai menggunakan pisau tajam dan di kumpulkan mengikut gred. Antara perosak tanaman peria katak ialah Ulat Pengorek Buah, Lalat Buah dan boleh di kawal jika kadar serangan tidak serious dengan perangkap methyl eugenol. Penyakit Layu Bakteria (Fusarium spp) merupakan masaalah utama peria katak. Petani mungkin tidak dapat hasil jika serangan layu fusarium berlaku pada peringkat awal. Kawalan rumpai hanya pada peringkat awal penanaman dan tidak menjadi masaalah jika pokok telah menutupi keselurohan kanopi.

Pengalaman penulis dengan En Murad yang telah menanam peria katak lebih 5 tahun menyatakan , beliau menjalankan penanaman peria katak bergilir-gilir dengan tanam petola, timun dan kacang panjang dan akan berubah kawasan penanaman. Kata Murad masalah untuk dapatkan benih yang baik, tanah yang subur dan ketulinan benih adalah isu utama dan bukannya masaalah amalan agronomi. Bekalan benih dari kedai penjual benih kadang-kadang sukar di perolehi. Oleh itu beliau ada memilih dan menyimpan benih sendiri untuk kegunaannya bagi penanaman akan datang. Kajian oleh penulis yang pernah berbincang dengan CEO Guthrie di Kuala Lumpur pada tahun 2007 menyatakan syarikatnya perlukan banyak peria katak untuk di proses bagi dijadikan pes ramuan bagi dijadikan ubat. Bagaimanapun harga ditawarkan cuma RM 0.30 - RM 0.40 sekilogram menjadikannya penanaman di Muar tidak viable. Kini syarikat tersebut banyak mengimpot bahan Charantia dari China.

Kandungan rasa pahit peria katak dipercayai secara klinikal dapat membantu mengawal penyakit kencing manis dan dipercayai dapat hindarkan HIV. Selain itu didakwa bahawa peria katak dikenali sebagai "INSULIN TUMBUHAN" yang kawal kandungan gula dan kencing manis. Kajian penulis mendapati anggaran pendapatan bersih sehektar peria katak sekitar RM 3,980.00 - RM 4,200.00 sehektar dan kos pengeluaran setiap kilogram peria katak sebanyak RM 0.90 dan pulangan setiapuran sebanyak ringgit pelaburan sebanyak RM 1,86 iaitu menguntungkan.


Peria Katak kini telah dikomersilkan dengan penghasilan produk 'ready to eat' seperti dalam bentuk kapsul, pil,  serbuk dan juga dalam bentuk larutan cecair. Produk tersebut dikategorikan sebagai makanan suplement kesihatan yang mudah didapati di farmasi-farmasi dan juga syarikat jualan terus. Saya percaya satu hari nanti  produk dari tanaman peria dan peria katak akan terus popular bagi penggunaan segar mahu pun dalam bentuk produk proses. 


KATAK OH KATAK...... PERIA KATAK?
KATAK APA.... KULIT MACAM KATAK PURU....
APA KHASIATNYA...... PAHIT JADI UBAT......
HARGANYA MAHAL...KAT SUPERMARKET 


Related articles:
1. Petola Segi (Klik disini)
2. Capsaicin yang pedas (Klik disini)
3. Petua (Klik disini)
4. Silvershine Plastic (Click here)
5. Seeds (Click here)
6. Sayuran Popular di Malaysia (Klik disini)


By
M Anim
Tangkak
Johor,
Malaysia
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