Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Jenis Tembikai

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Kawasan tanaman tembikai di Sengkang, Muar, Johor.

Tembikai (Citrullus lunatus) adalah tanaman buah jangkapendek yang menjalar dari keluarga Cucurbitaceae (sama dengan timun) yang dipercayai berasal dari Afrika Tengah. Tembikai adalah satu daripada 9 jenis buah-buahan yang diberikan keutamaan untuk di majukan di Malaysia dalam Dasar Pertanian negara Ke 3. Benih tembikai kebanyakkanya diimpot dari
Taiwan iaitu jenis Hybrid. Pemilihan varieti ditanam mengikut kehendak pasaran dan negara pengimpot. Pasaran Tembikai di Malaysia untuk Tempatan dan Ekspot Keluar Negara. Baca artikel saya dan rencana tembikai pada bulan seterusnya.

Berikut adalah beberapa verieti yang disyorkan untuk ditanam di Malaysia:


a. New Dragon (berbiji)
b. Flower Dragon (Berbiji)
c. Hitam manis (Berbiji - S118)
d. Black Gold (berbiji)
e. Fengshan (tanpa biji)
f. Ming Hwa (tanpa biji)
g. Gold Rush 1663 (Tanpa biji - TB)
h. Felicity (TB)
i. Orchid Sweet (TB)
j. Sin Foon (TB)
k. Quality (TB)
l. seedless No 1 (TB)

Kawasan yang sesuai untuk tanaman tembikai alah di kawasan rata serta tidak menakung air. kawasan baru sesuai dan elakkan dari menanam di lokasi yang baru bertanam tanaman dari keluarga cucurbiticeae (atau fallow sekurang-kurangnya satu bulan) jika nak tanam. Elakkan menanam dua pusingan pada kawasan yang sama atau berhampiran dengan cucurbitaceae.

Kawasan utama tanaman tembikai di Malaysia adalah di Pahang dan johor. Daerah Rompin Pahang merupakan kawasan utama tanaman tembikai (2,543 hektar) diikuti dengan Daerah Kluang Johor (1,119 hektar) dan Daerah Mersing Johor (828 hektar) pada tahun 2009. Sebanyak 228,880 metrik buah tembikai telah dikeluarkan di malaysia pada tahun 2009 dimana sebahagian besar adalah untuk pasaran ekspot.

Buah biasa matang dalam masa 65 hari selepas tanam bergantung kepada varieti. Pungutan hasil biasanya dibuat sebanyak 4 pusingan setiap musim. Pusingan pertama dan kedua biasanya mengeluarkan hasil bermutu tinggi dan sangat disyorkan untuk diekspot sementara pungutan hasil ketiga dan keempat biasanya berkualiti sederhana dan sesuai untuk pasaran tempatan. Pengredan tembikai ada 3 kategori iaitu Gred 1 , Gred 2 dan Luar Gred.

Untuk keterangan lebih lanjut sila berhubung dengan Pegawai Pertanian di Jabatan Pertanian yang berhampiran terutamanya di kawasan utama pengeluaran tembikai.


Disediakan oleh:

M Anem
AO Muar.


Memproses Mee Kuning

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Mee Kuning merupakan satu produk makanan yang dihasilkan melalui satu proses yang kritikal dari segi GMP (Good Manufacturing Process). Mee kuning diperbuat daripada tepung gandum yang di campur dengan bahan penting (yang selamat dimakan) dan di uli menggunakan Mesin Penguli Tepong sebelum di leperkan dan di jadikan mee melalui mesin penghiris sebelum masuk dalam air panas yang sentiasa mengalir. Mee tersebut akan masuk '├žonveyer' untuk disejukkan dalam aliran air sejuk dan di uraikan dengan campuran minyak masak untuk elakkan bercantum. Mee kuning yang selamat dimakan perlukan proses yang bersih dan dijaga kualiti.

Sekilo mee kuning di keluarkan dijual dengan harga antara RM 1.50 hingga RM 2.00 dan kos pengeluaran antara 80 sen sehingga RM 1.20 sekilogram bergantung kepada jenis mesin yang digunakan. Mee Kuning perlu dipasarkan segera pada hari yang sama di proses untuk mengekalkan kualitinya. Mee kuning dibungkus dalam plastik jernih dengan berat 1 kilogram sehingga 10 kilgram sebungkus bergantung kepada jenis pasaran. Mee ini perlu diedarkan terus ke Pasar awam, ke Restoran-restoran dan Gerai-gerai makanan. Mee Kuning sesuai dimakan sebagai Mee Goreng, Mee Goreng Mamak, Mee Bandung, Mee Kenduri, Mee Rebus, Mee Kari, Mee Jawa, Mee Kuah dan sebagainya mengikut resepi tempatan. Makanan ini menjadi kegemaran rakyat Malaysia yang sukakan makan mee kuning.

MEE KUNING.... DIMINATI RAMAI

DIPROSES BERSIH...MENGGUNAKAN MESIN....

TEKNOLOGI TERKINI...GHP DIPATUHI...

PENGUSAHA UNTUNG.... PENGGUNA TERJAMIN....

Dari,

M Anem

Projek IAT Muar

Monday, October 19, 2009

APO Training at Viantiane, LAO PDR

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Participants with Official after Opening Ceremony.
I was completed on attending a Training Planning and Management on Agroprocessing Enterprise at Lane-Xang Hotel Fa Nguam Road, Vientiane , Lao PDR (Room 329) from 18 Oct 2009 to 25 Oct 2009. The training was organised by APO Japan joint with SMEPDO Lao PDR with 22 participants from 13 country namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Lao, Thailand, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India, Philipines, Pakistan, Iran, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Cambodia. Two resource personel from Philipines (Prof. Reuneul K. Virtucio) and from Sri Lanka (Dr.DBT Wijeratne) with APO Official (Mr Endo) conducted such a good paper in planning and management of Agroprocessing activities. The training started with Local Agroprocessing activities an opportunities in Lao PDR by Ministry of Industry and Commerce which explained the strategy, challanges and Agroprocessing in Lao.


Visit on Salt Factory in Lao PDR to study the new prospestive.

Training methodology consists of Lecture Activity, Paper Presestation and Field visit to a agrobusiness company in Laos aat Friday 23th October 2009. Below are the lecture presented during course period:

Paper 1: Management of Agro processing Enterprise
Papeer 2: Product development and processes
Paper 3: Agribusiness Supply Chain Managenent
Paper 4:Product Quality and Safety Management
Paper 5: Finance-based De4scision making for Agrobased Enterprise
Paper 6: Effective new bproduct development & marketing
Paper 7: Presestation of case study



A visit to Salt Factory from underground water at Veunkham about 25 km from Viantiane Capital was organised to check how the salt business operated. The factory produce 95% of Viantiane Capital salt supply and exported to Taiwan, japan and Korea as medicated salt. The salt processed in two method that is by Direct Sunlight and Cooked to crytalised by heat. The salt contain high medicinal value and suitable for control high blood or diabetic problems. This factory has to improve the sanitation, security and safety of product for export market. a country paper n status of Agropprocessing Activity was presented from each country.

Discusson on project Financial analysis lead by Malasian Participants.


Have a succesful training!

Reported by:
Mohd Anim
Lane-Xang Hotel
Viantiane, Lao PDR
1630 (24 Oct 2009)

Thursday, October 15, 2009

Supply Chain of Vegetables in Malaysia

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Fresh vegetables from fertigation project at Muar.
Vegetable production is a continuous activity throughout the years by commercial vegetable growers for domestic and export. About 112,450 hectare area are grown with vegetable annually located at Highland Area (Cameron Highland and Kundasang) and Lowland Area (Johor Bahru, Muar, Perak, Selangor) and other patches area. Farmers produced their vegetable according to the market needs and their matrix calendar production. Highland vegetable such as cabbage, tomato, celery, capsicum, cauliflower and others needs a proper post harvest and transportation system due to the location distance from the farm to the consumer.


Post harvest intervals (PHI) is an important aspect and factor for farmers to follow as Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) to ensure the vegetables are in good quality and safe for consumption. the spraying or usage of pesticide or weedicide must follow the instruction as stated on the Label. Upon harvesting all produce must washed with running water to remove the dirt's and start grading according to quality. The vegetable arranged is rattan basket or plastic basket with proper layering paper to ensure quality. Transportation from the farm to collection center must fast and cooling room required for certain vegetable.

Wholesaler will distribute the fresh vegetable to the selected location and supermarkets or direct to retailer. For supermarket consignment all local suppliers engaged with the hypermarkets has to repacked with tagged price. Supermarket will arrange the vegetable according to variety, quality, pricing, quantity in the fresh food section or bay. The consumer has to properly satisfied with the presentation in supermarket and start buying. Supply Chain Management (SCM) of vegetable from farm to table need a lot of process with challengers .
Post harvest activity is an important factor determine price at the end outlet. Most farmers depend on the middle man to determine and do vegetable produce at farm level. Upon grading completed , most middle man will sent to main wholesalers and later distributed to retailer (eg Hypermarket, Supermarket, Mini Market or Small scale retailers). Product presentation in important and DISPLAY QUALITY is management by retailer operator. Supply chain management in Malaysia considered modern level which a proper system.
By,
M Anem
SCM Student


Thursday, October 8, 2009

Growing Leafy Vegetable on Peat Soil

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Commercial looks of Leafy vegetable farm on Peat Soil at GF Sengkang, Muar.


Peat soil considered a poor soil for most crops especially for perennial crops such as oil palm, orchards, rubber and coconuts that are Marginal Suitable. In Muar district of Johor there are about 1,450 hectare of deep peat soil especially in Mukim Air Hitam, Mukim Parit Jawa, Mukim Gerisek, Mukim Sg Balang, Mukim Seri Menanti and Mukim Jorak. Shallow peat area are located along coastal area from Muar to Batu Pahat mostly grown with coconut mixed with coffee but in the late 1980's most farmers change old crop to Oil Palm. Rubber area in traditional village nowadays scenario are 99 percent planted with oil palm mostly on the coastal area. In Mukim Air Hitam the peat area mostly planted with pineapple by smallholder with farm size ranging from 1 hectare to 4 hectare. The grow Morris Variety (40%) and Josapine Variety (60%) and sold for fresh consumption. Some area the pineapple are grown under coconut tree (MATAG Variety - DOA Project) and mixed with banana in some cases.


There are about 180 hectare of peat soil in Mukim Gerisek near Sengkang River has been develops with Commercial Leafy Vegetable Farm. This area gathered 40 Chinese Farmers and 70% about of the area are grown with leafy vegetable such as brassica, bayam, kangkong, daun bawang, kailan, sawi, kuchai and many others. DOA established Famers Group Farming Committee in 1986 and Mr Tan Soo Tiok elected as a Group Leader. This project won first as champion in National Group Farming Project in 2009 and received prizes from Prime Minister on 16 August 2009 at MITC Malacca during National Farmers Festival. The project produced more than RM 5.2 million annually from leafy vegetable project. They marketed the vegetable to Malacca, Muar, Batu Pahat and Segamat District to the wholesaler.




Kuchai is a type of leafy vegetable for local dishes. Less usage of chemicals.

DOA recorded potential yield from this area is from 7,000 -12,000 kilogram per hectare (Sawi, Bayam, kangkung, Kailan). One crop cycle average planting period is about 26 to 30 days. The production level are considered medium potential category compare to mineral soil area. Kailan needs nursery under controlled condition and follow matrix calendar production according to market needs. Most kailan sent to wholesaler and cooked as Thai Tomyam local dishes as a complementary menu. Study shown that one foreign farm worker are able to manage 1 hectare of leafy vegetable farm. Every 10 hectare of farm managed by A Mandur (farm supervisor) that will arrange crop calender, harvesting target date and agronomic practices. Some of the farmers in this area received SALM Certification Program by DOA to ensure the vegetable production following batter Quality and Safe to eat.

Extension services especially on Pesticide Extension program checked regularly. Vegetable sample collected upon harvest and sent to Air Hitam Post Harvest Laboratory for chemical residual content. If the result Positive (MRL above permitted level) , Agriculture Officer will find the respective farmers to check and provide extension advise the usage of proper pesticide. Later it will be reported to authorised Division action has been taken on the ground using RF-2 Forms. Leafy vegetable production in Muar District is a commercial farming activities and DOA manage to improve the technology and agronomic practices as planned program.

By

AO M Anem

AO checked the farm to collect farm sample for lab analysis.

Program Bumi Hijau

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Bahan Kit Bumi Hijau yang dibekalkan oleh Jabatan Pertanian Muar.


Program Bumi Hijau yang di lancarkan oleh Perdana Manteri terus dilaksanakan di seluroh kawasan dalam daerah Muar/Ledang. Tujuan Program Bumi Hijau adalah untuk memberikan orang ramai peluang untuk mengeluarkan makanan sendiri di keliling rumah menggunakan kawasan sedia ada. Di Daerah Muar terdapat 10 Program Komuniti dan 1,400 Program Individu. Jabatan Pertanian membekalkan Benih Tanaman, Peralatan Asas (Plastik, Baja Kompos, Bahan Kimia) serta panduan penanaman beberapa jenis sayuran seperti Cili, Bayam, Kangkung, Bendi, Kacang Botor, Jagung dan sebagainya. Setiap Individu diberikan Beg Bumi Hijau yang mengandungi perkara diatas.



YB Asojan (ADUN Gambir) merasmikan pelancaran Projek Bumi Hijau di Taman Baru BG.

Bagi Program Komuniti ianya dijalankan di Kawasan Lapang Taman Perumahan atau di sekitar kampong atau Sekolah atau Hospital. Beberapa Sekolah telah menunjukkan kejayaan yang cemerlang seperti Sekolan Kebangsaan Ledang yang menjadi Juara di Daerah Ledang peringkat Negeri Johor. Peranan Guru dan Murid menjadikan sekolah tersebut dapat menjalankan program bumi hijau dengan baik. Program ini diteruskan pada setiap tahun untuk mempastikan orang ramai dapat menghasilkan bahan makanan yang Segar, Selamat dan berkhasiat serta dapat memupuk semangat berdikari dan mengurangkan belanja pasar.


Kajian yang dijalankan oleh Jabatan Pertanian menunjukkan Program Bumi Hijau menjimatkan perbelanjaaan mingguan ebanyak RM 25 - RM 30 seminggu untuk kos pembelian sayur-sayuran segar setiap peserta. Ini bermakna sebanyak antara RM 100 - RM 120 dalat dijimatkan dalam sebulan. Temubual beberapa peserta di Taman Tun Dr Ismail di Muar mendapati hasil sayuran Program Bumi Hijau adalah segar dan selamat dimakan kerana menggunakan bahan kimia biopesticide yang juga organik.

Sebanyak RM 17.4 juta telah dijana dari aktiviti program bumi hijau melalui penanaman sayur-sayuran dan tanaman jangkapendek melalui Projek Individu dan Projek Komuniti. Kajian temubual dengan beberapa sumber menyatakan program komuniti bumi hijau sangat berjaya di beberapa lokasi sehingga terdapat peserta menjual hasilnya untuk pendapatan tambahan. Kempen Program Bumi Hijau ini perlu diteruskan sepanjang masa untuk mempastikan kelestariannya dan kesedaran penduduk Malaysia mendapatkan bekalan sayuran yang segar, berkualiti dan selamat di makan disamping menjimatkan perbelanjaan dapur.

BUMI HIJAU....PROGRAM KERAJAAN...

BENIH SAYUR DIEDAR...PETANI MENANAM...

HASIL DITUAI....DIMAKAN SENDIRI....

SELAMAT DIMAKAN...TAK PERLU BELI LAGI...




By

DOA Muar

JOHOR

Monday, October 5, 2009

Growing Roselle

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Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa spp) in Malvaceae family is a bush type of tree which produce flower that rich of vitamin C (Claimed 9 times more than orange). I was experience in Roselle growing project during my tenure at Mersing Agriculture Office in late 1990's. Roselle was introduced by me in Mersing as alternative crop to tobacco at that time. About 4 hectare of bris soil was selected at Endau area. The project involved 5 farmers as pilot project. This crop still exists there until today. From my study shown that China is the largest roselle producers in the world followed by Thailand. This article in "Anim Agro Technology" , I would like to share my knowledge about Roselle Growing Project conducted in Mersing District, Johore.

Roselle is a bush type of tree with maximum height of 2-3 meter without pruning. The stem diameter about 1-2 cm with red grey or Pale color and has several branching system. The leaves are green reddish color with 10-15 cm length and has a sour taste. The leaves also uses as cooking culinary due to the characteristic for 'masak asam pedas'. The Roselle fruit formed after pollination of their beautiful flower (See photo next). The fruit about 3-5cm diameter with dark red color and 4 calyx. The fruit has seeds in the center and used as source of planting material. From my observation it grows well with proper irrigation system on fertile soil.

There are three cultivar of roselle in Malaysia known as Red Roselle, Wild Red Roselle and Yellow Roselle. It was reported by Department of Agriculture Johore (DOA) for commercial growing the Red Roselle (UMKL Variety) and Red UKM Variety are recommended. In Malaysia, roselle was commercially grown in Terengganu in mid 1980's and recently in Johore (District of Mersing) in late 1990's introduced by DAO Mohd Anim at that period and mostly was grown on Bris Soil. About 246 hectare are planted from 2000 to 2008 which produce 424.7 metric ton of calyx valued for RM 1.03 million. Currently the growers shifted to better soil area (on mineral soil - with new crop management system) for higher calyx production.


Seeds from matured tree collected and dried. Select those tree with special criteria such as high yielding, stay stand with strong stems, early maturity period, even branching system and vigorous. The seed treated with fungicide before planting. Recommended planting distance was 1.5 m x 0.6 m giving a crop intensity at 7,500 trees/ ha. From my observation in Mersing, the flower start blooming after 60 days of planting. Harvesting of calyx from 80 to 105 days after planting and if harvesting interval for 7-10 days than we can achieve about 6-9 harvesting frequency.




Potential yield recorded in Johore about 14 - 18 mt per hectare. DOA demonstration plot recorded about an average of 152 flower/calyx was produced from each tree with an average 7 flower from each branch. One kilogram of calyx consists of 75 set flowers and 142 calyx weigh about 1 kg. Hence we can collect an average 1.1 kg of calyx every tree. With farm price at RM 2.80/kg calyx it means about RM 23,000 gross income per hectare with give a return of RM 3.08 / tree. The 'DECORING PROCESS' is the most tidiuos job in roselle  growing project (See photo next). It use a hollow sharp steel push to the calyx center to remove the seed.
Fresh Calyx collected from fresh flower after 'Decoring"process which a special rounded knife push onto the flower to remove the seeds. The calyx must be processed within 12 hours or keep in freezer in below zero degrees for longer storage. The calyx later processed for Drink Juice, Halwa, Jem or other product. It was claimed that other product from roselle are Health Food, Cosmetic Product, Pharmaceutical Product, Snack Food and others. Study found that the demand is about RM 792.5 million annual of finishes roselle product mostly in pharmaceutical product in 2005.


Most of Roselle produced in Malaysia are processed for making syrup or juice for healthy drinks. The other used is for Roselle tea, beverages, jam , health food and food coloring. Roselle rich of anthocyanins, protogutetic acid and many other chemical. It used as diuretic food for many years. In Malaysia the roselle syrup processed as a Agrobased product with bottled in 1 litre and tag price about RM 10.00 each. The roselle jam was popular as another product.
It is a great potential in growing roselle provided there is better technology especially in reducing labour cost in harvesting and 'decoring' activities. Any farmers interested to grow or familiar with roselle technology can approach to the nearest Department of Agriculture Extension Officers.

GROW ROSELLE....DOING WELL...
WHERE TO GET SEEDS.... ASK FRIENDS...
HOW TO PROCESS.... JUICE OR CORDIAL...DRINKS HEALTHY... THEN HAPPY...


By
M AnEm
DOA 

Muar
Johor
Malaysia

(Updated on 30 March 2013)

Friday, October 2, 2009

Development of Idle Land

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Idle land at Mk Air hitam, Muar (Deep Peat)

Idle land in Malaysia define as any agricultural land belongs to farmers/owners not utilised for three (3) continuous years or six (6) seasons for paddy area. Unnder utilised land is not considered as idle land. It was estimated about 11,000 hectares of idle land reported in 2008 respectively. Most idle land located on problem soil such as Bris Soil, Peat Soil and remote area which lack of basic infrasrructures. Bris soil alone estimated about 2,400 hectare alongside coastal area such as in Terengganu, Pahang and Johore idle due to poor soil quality and marginal for many crops. Olny tobacco, cash crops, coconuts (Traditional Variety) and Gajus are rarely planted on Bris Soil. Bris soil poor of organic matter and los water holding capacity. Peat soil are costly to develop due to poor soil structure and high cost on farm road, bridges, drain and land preparation. Development cost for peat area cost 25 to 35 % more from odinary idle land.


New Farm Road and Proper drainage from DOA Muar, Johore.

Factors contribute to idle land are as folows:

a. Small size and uneconomic for crop devlopment and scatered

b. Lack of farmers interest (Town Area)

c. No access road and basic facilities

d. Problem Soil quality (Bris Soil/Peat soil)

e. High initial cost development (More RM 20,000/ha)

f. Difficult to verify the land owner

g. Linited /goverment assistant/subsidy/rehabilitation program

Harvesting of Josapine Pineapple from Idle land project at Muar District, Johore.

From 2007 to 2009 about 136 hectare of idle land in Muar District has been developed especially on peat soil planted with pineapple, shore-term crop (Yam, Tapioca, Vegetables etc). Department of Agriculture provide extension services and infrastructure development and initial farm inputs (Seedling, Chemicals and Fertilizer). Pineapple project at Bt 14, Mukim Air Hitam Muar produced about 180,000 pieces of pineapple (JOSAPINE Variety) in 2008 considered as successful project. Most of the pineapple harvested are Grade A and Double A and mostly marketed to Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley. Each farmers earn about RM 1,500 to RM 2,500 per month from this project.

By

Mohd Anem,

Muar, Johore

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